It was a humid day on the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. As the papyrus swayed back and forth, Croc, an enormous crocodile, spotted Croak, a mere toad. Croc was extremely hungry, so he grabbed Croak. The terrified toad was trembling at the sight of the vicious crocodile.
“Please spare me!” Croak pleaded. “If you do, I will surely help you some day.” Croc laughed at the thought of a weak toad assisting him, a strong crocodile. Interested, Croc accepted.
Weeks later, Croak heard wailing and moaning in the papyrus, so he hopped to take a look. As Croak peeked through the thicket, he could see the pathetic Croc, who had a chipped tooth. Croak, who had made a promise, lassoed the tooth with his slimy tongue, pulled with all his might, and out it flew! The odd couple became best friends.
The IRA (Irish Republic Army) was against having the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the UK because in the treaty it stated that Ireland would be within the British Empire, but almost completely free to do as they pleased. They also thought it was a betrayal of the Irish Republic that had been proclaimed under the Easter Uprising, who were Irish who loathed the British and wanted no connection with them whatsoever, so they started a civil war to try to overthrow the pro-treaty Irish Provisional Government, which became known as the Free State in December 1922. The Provisional Government wanted peace with the UK and thought the treaty was fair. Many of the people, on both sides, had fought under the Old IRA during the Irish War of Independence. Many of the pro-treaty members of the IRA either left or were thrown out when the civil war began.
On April 14, members of the new IRA occupied buildings of the Irish Supreme Court (Four Courts). These members wanted to spark a new conflict with the British Empire. Some Provisional Government officials wanted to use force against them but others wanted to avoid a civil war as much as possible.
From April to June the rebels were left alone until the National Army bombarded the Four Courts until the IRA surrendered. The building was badly damaged and many of the archives were burned.
Other attacks and bombings occurred, but on May 24, 1923 the anti-treaty IRA surrendered to the pro-treaty Provisional Government.
On October 31, 1922 Bentino Mussolini became the 27th Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy after the March on Rome. The March on Rome was Mussolini’s mass demonstration during which Mussolini and his fascist “Blackshirts” marched through the city of Rome. Three days after the march, Mussolini was appointed the 27th Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy. During the march, the current Prime Minister, Luigi Facta, wished to declare a state of siege, but was overruled by King Victor Emmanuel III and appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister instead.
Also known as the Italo-Senussi War the pacification of Libya was a long and bloody conflict between the Italian military against Libyan rebels known as the Senussi Order. The Senussi Order were a resistance to Italian colonization in Cyrenaica, currently Eastern Libya, under rebel leader Omar Mukhtar. During the conflict, the Italians, under Benito Mussolini, committed multiple war crimes including the use of chemical weapons, the execution of surrendering Libyans, and the killing of mass civilians. Concentration camps were also used for rebellious Libyans, who opposed the Italian occupation.
Libya had been part of the Ottoman Empire until the Turkish-Italo War in 1911 when Italy invaded Libya. The war ended in Italian victory, so Italy was able to keep Libya as its own colony. Up until 1923, the Libyans were able to relatively ignore the Italian control over the country, but when Omar Mukhtar staged a rebellion the Italians decided they needed to do something. Over 250,000 Libyans died during the “Pacification” between 1923 and 1932.
The war ended in Italian victory in 1932 and they executed of Omar Mukhtar and many of his followers.
Meanwhile in the German Weimar Republic on November 8, Hitler, some 20 Nazi Party members, and a detachment of 603 SA surrounded a beer hall in the city of Munich in the German state of Bavaria. In the hall a man named Gustav Ritter Von Kahr was making a speech. Kahr was a Bavarian socialist, who was against Adolf Hitler and his ideas. With his soldiers guarding the event from outside, Hitler made his way into the auditorium, jumped on a chair, and yelled, “The national revolution has begun! The hall is surrounded by 600 men. No one is allowed to leave!” He then said that the government of Bavaria was deposed and declared the formation of a new government. Then he ordered Kahr along with two other men at gunpoint to accept new government positions he had just assigned to them. They refused and were taken into custody by the Nazis.
During the night, units of Kampfbund (other Nazis) were wandering around the city, attempting to resupply themselves when a unit of Reichswehr (Barvarian police) spotted them. The Reichswehr were trying to get to nearby barracks when they had spotted the Nazis. They fired at each other without any fatalities. The Nazi Kampfbund retreated while the Reichswehr called reinforcements.
The next day Hitler realized the Putsch was going nowhere. He was about to call it off when a Nazi named Erich Ludendorff then shouted, “We will march!” so Hitler and 2,000 other Nazis and Sturmabteilung (SA) marched to the Feldherrnhalle, where they were confronted by German police. The police fired on the Nazis, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazi Party members and 4 police officers. Adolf Hitler was wounded, but escaped his arrest and fled to the countryside. Two days later, he was taken into custody and was charged with treason. He was found guilty and charged with five years in prison. During his time, he wrote a book about Nazi ideals and Germany’s future called Mein Kampt or My Struggle in German. After serving only six months, Hitler was released.
On the 15 of September, Bolshevik-inspired Romanian rebels started an uprising in the Bessarabian city of Tatarbunary. Being pro-Russian the rebels called for an end to Romanian occupation of Bessariarabia and the creation of a new Moldovan Communist nation, a protectorate of the Soviet Union. The revolt lasted from September 15 to the 18. In the end the Romanian government prevailed, but resulted in the death of 3,000 people.
In 1916 during WWI, Hejaz had been a part of the Arab Revolt, a mass Arab rebellion led by the United Kingdom against their Ottoman oppressors. After the war the Kingdom of Hejaz achieved independence. Hejaz bordered a large Arabian country called the Sultanate of Nejd, modernly containing most of Saudi Arabia. Hejaz and Nejd had already fought between each other in the First Saudi-Hastemite War of 1919, but this conflict sparked because Saudi pilgrims were denied access to the Islamic holy land in the cities of Mecca and Media. On August 29, 1924 Saudi troops invaded the Kingdom of Hejaz. They advanced towards the city of Taif, which fell without any major struggle. Then Nejd turned toward Mecca. Hejaz appealed to the United Kingdom for aid, but they refused. Mecca fell with little resistance. The king of Hejaz had fled from Mecca to Jeddah before the city fell. Yanbu and Medina fell in December, 1925 and in January, 1926 Saudi troops entered the gates of Jeddah. Hejaz was united with Nejd after the city fell.
To the north in the country of Turkey, the Kurds wished to be separate from Turkey and have their own country. In 1925, they had three rebellions: The Sheikh Rebellion, Raçkotan and Raman Pacifying Operations, and the Sason Rebellion. All three of these rebellions failed and the leaders of each were executed. The first two combined lasted not even a year, but the last rebellion lasted until 1937.
Not far from Turkey in Yemen, people from the Zaraniq tribe started an armed revolution against the Arabian country of Yemen.
At the time Yemen’s official name was the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Zaraniq was supported by the United Kingdom, who were still very instrumental in the Middle East. Zaraniq was also supported by the newly united country of Hejaz and Nejd.
The only fighting that occurred during the war was occasional raids by the Zaraniq. In 1929 the war ended with the Yemeni government emerging on top.
To the north of Yemen groups of Syrian rebels plotted to rid Syria of French rule, who had taken the land from the Ottomans after WWI.
Different types of Muslims and even Christians across Syria and Lebanon independently fought with one common goal: to rid the area of French rule. The revolt lasted from July 1925 to June 1927 with a total of 6,000 casualties. The French won the war and defeated the rebels.
The war ended in December 1928 with a Nationalist victory. The Beiyang Government was overthrown and the warlords were defeated.
The communists had been thrown out of the alliance in April 1927 after communist labor unions took control of Shanghai and were defeated. After this point the CCP was angered, thus starting the long, bloody Chinese Civil War.
In 1927, there were three more Kurdish rebellions, in the fairly new country of Turkey, that were all put down within the end of 1927. These were the Koçuşaği Rebellion, the Mutki Rebellion, and the Bicar Suppression.
In 1929, there were also two more, the Asi Resul Rebellion and the Tenduruk Rebellion, which also ended in failure.
In 1927, still during the Northern Expedition conflict, a 22 year conflict was about to begin between the Kuomintang (KMT) lead Republic of China and Chinese Communist Party (CCP). To make this easier I’ll split this into three parts. The first part will cover the years 1927-1930, the second will cover 1931-1937, and the third part will cover 1937-1949.
In early 1927, the KMT-CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The KMT moved the seat of the KMT government from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Guangzhou had a heavy communist influence whereas Wuhan was heavily nationalist. Also it’s important to emphasis that there were left-wing KMT, who were more socialist and didn’t like communism, and then right-wing KMT. Right and left KMT worked tried to work together, but it led to an unstable government. Wuhan was the seat of the left-wing KMT while Nanchang was the seat of the right. On August 1 of the same year the CCP launched an uprising in Nanchang against a KMT government based in Wuhan. This led to the creation of the Chinese Red Army. This rebellion was put down by August 8.
King Amanullah Khan had angered these Islamic nationalists because he was against radical Islam. He wished for women to have more rights and thought non-muslims should have equal rights in Afghanistan.
The war began when the Shinwaris revolted in the city of Jalalabad in November 1928. Even though this revolt was quickly put down, it inspired the Saqqawists to rebel in Jabal al-Siraj before attacking Afghanistan’s capital of Kabul on December 14, 1928. This assault was stopped, but on January 17, 1929 the Saqqawists were successful in occupying the capital. After Kabul they headed east and beat back Ali Ahmad Khan’s army near Jalalabad.
In June a man known as Nadir Khan engaged a Saqqawist offensive in the north. The man that had been king prior to the revolution, Amanullah Khan, had fled the country leaving it up to Nadir Khan to stop the rebels. After a month of stalemate in the north, Nadir pushed them all the way back to Kabul. On October 13, 1929 the Afghan palace in Kabul, the Arg, was captured by Nadir’s forces. After the capture of the Arg the civil war is known to end even though Saqqwist activity continued until 1931. After the war Nadir Khan became the new king of Afghanistan and ruled until 1933.
Also, in December 1929, the Soviets entered Northern Afghanistan to wipe out the anti-Soviet Basmachi there, who had fought against them on several occasions on the Soviet-Afghan border and in Uzbekistan.
The 1929 Stock Market Crash was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States. The 1920’s in America was a time of wealth and prosperity and is known as “The Roaring Twenties” because of this. This crash signaled the beginning of the Great Depression, an event which left many Americans in poverty until after WWII.
The Sino-Tibetian War began when the Tibetian Army invaded China in a dispute over Buddhist monasteries. Although a three-year war, Chiang Kai-shek’s army overwhelmed Tibetian forces during the first year of the war. A ceasefire was being negotiated, but Tibet refused the conditions and the war continued for two more years. In 1932 the war ended, but it had changed nothing. Tibet still had the same land as before and the monasteries remained in Chinese control.
About: In December 1964, England let Guyana vote and hold elections. They voted to become Independent.
Haiti (North America)
Population: 11.1 Million
Size: 10,710 sq. miles
Currency: Haitian Gourde
Tallest point: Pic la Selle 8,773 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 86.9%
Main languages: French, Haitian Creole
About: The Haitian Revolution against the French was from 1791-1804.After the War’s end Haiti gained independence from France.
Vatican City (Europe)
Capital: Vatican City
Size: 0.19 sq. miles
Tallest point: Unnamed Location 250 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 100%
Main languages: Italian
About: In 1929, the Italian Government recognized Vatican City as an Independent country.
Honduras (North America)
Population: 9.5 Million
Size: 43,433 sq. miles
Tallest point: Cerro las Minas 9,420 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 87%
Main languages: Spanish
About: On September 15, 1821, Honduras gained independence from Spain.
Population: 9.7 Million
Size: 35,920 sq. miles
Tallest point: Kékes 3,327 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 54.3%
Main languages: Hungarian
About: In 1989, Hungary peacefully became independent from the Soviet Union.
Size: 39,682 sq. miles
Currency: Icelandic Krona
Tallest point: Hvannadalshnjúkur 6,922 feet tall
Main religion: Church of Iceland ???%
Main languages: Icelandic, Polish
About: In 1944, Iceland became independent from Denmark, after 97% voted to be free.
Capital: New Delhi
Population: 1,352,642,280 (1.3 Billion)
Size: 1,269,216 sq. miles
Currency: Indian rupee
Tallest point: Kangchenjunga 28,169 feet tall
Main religion: Hinduism 79.8%
Main languages: Hindi, English
About: From 1857-1947 India had an independence movement to end British rule there. On August 5, 1947 India gained its independence.
Population: 267.6 Million
Size: 735,358 sq. miles
Currency: Indonesian rupiah
Tallest point: Puncak Jaya 15,774 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 86.7%
Main languages: Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese, and Malay
About: During the Indonesian National Revolution, (1945-1949) they fought against the Dutch for Independence. On August 17, 1949 they gained independence.
Population: 83.1 Million
Size: 636,372 sq. miles
Tallest point: Mount Damavand 18,403 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 99.4%
Main languages: Persian, Azerbaijani, Qashqai, and Turkmen
About: In 1979, there was a revolution which turned Iran into a Islamic Republic.
Population: 38.4 Million
Size: 168,754 sq. miles
Currency: Iraqi Dinar
Tallest point: Cheekha Dar 11,847 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 98%
Main languages: Arabic, Kurdish, Mandaic, Turkish, Assyrian, and Armenian
About: On October 3, 1932 Iraq gained independence from Britain.
Population: 6.5 Million
Size: 32,595 sq. miles
Tallest point: Carrauntoohil 3,407 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 78.3%
Main languages: English, Irish, Ulster Scots, and Shelta
About: From 1916-1921 there were many riots and chaos in Ireland. In 1921, they gained independence from Britain.
Population: 9.2 Million
Size: 8,522 sq. mile
Tallest point: Mount Hermon 9,232 feet tall
Main religion: Judaism 74.2%
Main languages: Hebrew, Arabic
About: In 1949, Israel became independent from Britain. It was formerly part of the British colony of Trans-Jordan.
Population: 60.3 Million
Size: 116,350 sq. miles
Tallest point: Monte Bianco 15,782 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 83.3%
Main languages: Italian, English, French, Spanish, and German
About: After WW2, Italy was made into a Democracy, before being a member of the Axis.
Jamaica (North America)
Population: 2.7 Million
Size: 4,244 sq. miles
Currency: Jamaican Dollar
Tallest point: Blue Mountain Peak 7,402 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 68.9%
Main languages: English
About: Britain gave Jamaica independence on August 6, 1962.
Population: 125.9 Million
Size: 145,937 sq. miles
Currency: Japanese Yen
Tallest point: Mount Fuji 12,389 feet tall
Main religion: Shintoism 80%
Main languages: Japanese
About: After WW2 Japan became a territory of the United States of America. It became free on May 3, 1947.
Population: 10.6 Million
Size: 34,495 sq. miles
Currency: Jordanian Dinar
Tallest point: Umm ad Dami 6,083 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 95%
Main languages: Arabic
About: Jordan gained independence along with Israel when they became independent in 1949.
Capital: Astana (Also known as Nur-Sultan)
Population: 18.7 Million
Size: 1,052,100 sq. miles
Tallest point: Khan Tengri 7,439 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 70.2%
Main languages: Kazakh, Russian
About: On December 16, 1991 during the Dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991-1993) it became independent.
Population: 47.5 Million
Size: 224,081 sq. miles
Currency: Kenyan Shilling
Tallest point: Mount Kenya 17,021 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 85.52%
Main languages: English, Swahili
About: On December 12, 1963 Britain let Kenya have independence.
Kiribati (Australia and the Pacific)
Capital: South Tarawa
Size: 313 sq. miles
Currency: Australian Dollar
Tallest point: Banaba 285 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 96.2%
Main languages: English, Gilbertese
About: Formerly known as the Gilbert Islands Kiribati was first discovered by Europeans when Captain Thomas Gilbert, found it in 1788 and named it the Gilbert Islands. In 1979, Britain granted Kiribati independence.
Korea, North (North Korea) (Asia)
Population: 25.5 Million
Size: 46,450 sq. miles
Currency: Korean People’s Won
Tallest point: Paektu Mountain 9,019 feet tall
Main religion: None
Main languages: Korean
About: Before WW2 Korea was under Japanese control and after it was divided in South and North Korea the North Communist and the South Democratic.
Korea, South (South Korea) (Asia)
Population: 51.7 Million
Size: 38,750 sq. miles
Currency: Korean Republic Won
Tallest point: Jeju 6,400 feet tall
Main religion: Christain 26.1%
Main languages: Korean
About: South Korea became independent after WW2 just like North Korea. In 1950, North and South Korea waged war until 1953. They finally signed the peace treaty in 2018.
Capital: Kuwait City
Population: 4.4 Million
Size: 6,880 sq. miles
Currency: Kuwaiti Dinar
Tallest point: Mutla Ridge 1,004 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 74.3%
Main languages: Arabic
About: On June 20, 1961 Kuwait became independent from the British Empire.
Population: 6.5 Million
Size: 77,202 sq. miles
Tallest point: Khan Tengri 23,000 feet tall
Main religion: Islam 90%
Main languages: Kyrgyz, Russian
About: On December 25, 1991 During the fall of the Soviet Union Kyrgyzstan gained independence from the Soviet Union.