History of the 6th North Carolina Infantry

Real Flag of the 6th North Carolina Infantry used in Battle.

The 6th North Carolina Infantry Regiment was first organized in May of 1861 in Alamance County, North Carolina. The men in the regiment were from the counties of Mecklenburg, Orange, Burke, Catawba, McDowell, Mitchell, Yancey, Alamance, Rowan, Wake, Caswell, and Chatham. Our ancestor, John Mason Houston joined the regiment sometime in 1864, at the age of 18. They were originally organized by Colonel Charles F. Fisher, Lieutenant Colonel W. T. Dorch, and Major C. E. Lightfoot, and moved to Raleigh on July 8, 1861. 

Six companies of the regiment were moved to Richmond, Virginia by rail on July 12, and moved to Northern Virginia on July 14. They crossed the Shenandoah River on July 18, and arrived in Manassas the next day. 

Colonel Charles F. Fisher, who was killed at the Battle of Manassas.

They first saw action at the Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861 and engaged northwest of Lewis Farm. Their commander, Colonel Charles F. Fisher, was killed in the attack. They had 73 casualties, 23 killed and 50 wounded. 

On July 25, they were assigned to General W. H. C. Whiting, 2nd Corps, Army of North Virginia. They built winter quarters in December, but their camp was plagued with disease. In early April 1862, they marched to Yorktown, Virginia where they engaged federals at the Siege of Yorktown. At this point, they had a total of 715 men. Captain Isaac E. Avery was appointed their commander on April 10. 

They fought at the many battles in the Peninsula Campaign in the summer of 1862, the first of which was Eltham’s Landing. At the Battle of Seven Pines, they took heavy casualties, and Colonel Avery was wounded for the first time. They were transferred to the Shenandoah Valley on June 12, but were transferred back to the Peninsula alongside Stonewall Jackson in July of 1862. 

At the Battles of Gaines Mill, White Oak Swamp, and Malvern Hill, the 6th N.C. took 115 casualties. At Gaines Mill, they crossed a deep, wooded ravine under heavy fire from Union soldiers, and captured Federal artillery at the top of a hill. Colonel Avery was wounded for a second time and would not see action again till December 1862. At Malvern Hill, they saw little action. 

Confederate Attack at Gaines Mill.

They engaged at the battle of Rappahannock Station in August of 1862, and took no casualties. On August 28, they moved north towards Manassas, and engaged at the Second Battle of Bull Run, where they took heavy casualties. They engaged a couple days later at Chantilly, where they took considerable casualties. At Second Bull Run and Chantilly, they took a total of 147 casualties. 

Later that September, they marched north across the Potomac River into Maryland, where they took part in the Battle of South Mountain, but were not heavily engaged. They were heavily engaged at the Battle of Sharpsburg, where their commander Colonel Robert F. Webb, in the arm. They fixed bayonets and charged the Union line, where they took heavy casualties. That night, they retreated back to Virginia. They took a total of 125 casualties at Sharpsburg. 

Monument to North Carolina troops in Sharpsburg.

At Fredericksburg in December, they were hit by Union troops but did not take many casualties. They set up winter quarters until March of 1863. In May, they attacked Gen. Sedgwick’s men near Fredericksburg during the Battle of Chancellorsville. They had 8 killed and 21 wounded during the battle. Colonel Avery took temporary command of the 6th N.C. after General Hoke was wounded. 

Before Gettysburg, they were involved in the Second Battle of Winchester, and they started marching towards Pennsylvania on June 16, 1863. Before Gettysburg, they had 509 men under the command of Samuel M. Tate. They reached the town of Gettysburg on July 1, and entered the line of battle. They took some casualties from Confederate artillery that accidentally hit them, then they attacked Culp’s Hill late in the afternoon. 

They advanced across a open field, being hit by Union artillery fire and cross fire from their left. Colonel Avery fell mortally wounded, and was lost in the cannon smoke. We would die the next day of his wounds. They were able to take the base of Culp’s Hill after hand-to-hand fighting, but with extremely heavy casualties. On July 3, they saw no fighting and that night they left from Hagerstown road. They took a total of 183 casualties while assaulting Culp’s Hill. 

Confederate Attack on Culp’s Hill.

The 6th N.C. fought in the Bristoe Campaign in October and November of 1863, and lost 20 men and had 317 captured at the disastrous Battle of Rappahannock Bridge on November 7. They participated in the Mine Run Campaign in December, and suffered no casualties. In January of 1864, they were transferred by rail to their home state of North Carolina, and assigned to the Department of North Carolina.

At the Battle of Plymouth in April of 1864, they stormed the Federal works to capture the city. They had 6 men killed and 25 wounded. In May they were assigned to Ransom’s Division, Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, and fought at the Battle of New Bern, taking zero casualties. In May they returned to Virginia, and were assigned to the 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. They served at the Battles of North Anna and Bethesda Church in May. They served at the Battle of Cold Harbour in early June, but no casualties are recorded. 

From June 12 – 17, they marched to Lynchburg, Virginia, and were assigned to the Army of the Valley. They pursued Union General David Hunter at the Battle of Lynchburg and took no casualties. They marched north into Maryland with General Jubal A. Early, and fought at the Battle of Monocacy. They followed the Federals all the way to Fort Stevens, before crossing back over the Potomac and across the Blue Ridge Mountains. 

During the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864, they fought at the Second Battle of Kernstown, Third Battle of Winchester, Battle of Fisher’s Hill and the Battle of Cedar Creek, atlought no casualties are recorded. In December of 1864, they left the valley under General Gordon and rejoined with Robert E. Lee’s army in Richmond. 

Confederate trenches and bodies outside of Petersburg, Virginia.

The regiment served in the final two battles during the Siege of Petersburg: The Battle of Hatcher’s Run and Fort Steedman. In April of 1865, they engaged at Sailor’s Creek and High Bridge, before finally surrendering at Appomattox Courthouse. On April 9, 1865, low on food, guns and morale, they surrendered to General Grant’s Army. When they surrendered, they had 6 officers and 175 enlisted men, only 72 of whom were armed.

Confederate surrendering their flag at Appomattox Courthouse.

Our ancestor, John Mason Houston, who served in the 6th North Carolina Infantry, was born in 1846, and didn’t join the army until 1864. He probably first saw action at Cold Harbour or in the Valley Campaign of 1864. We do know that he surrendered with his regiment at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865. He died at the age of 70 in 1916. 

The regiment had a total of 1,045 recorded casualties (728 killed or wounded, 317 captured) but probably had many more than weren’t recorded, and a number that died from disease.

Battles Fought:

Battle of Manassas (July 1861)
Siege of Yorktown (April-May 1862)
Battle of Eltham’s Landing (May 1862)
Battle of Seven Pines (May-June 1862)
Battle of Gaines Mill (June 1862)
Battle of White Oak Swamp (June 1862)
Battle of Malvern Hill (July 1862)
Battle of Rappahannock Station (August 1862)
Second Battle of Manassas (August 1862)
Battle of Chantilly (September 1862)
Battle of South Mountain (September 1862)
Battle of Sharpsburg (September 1862)
Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862)
Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1863)
Second Battle of Winchester (June 1863)
Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863)
Bristoe Campaign (October-November 1863)
Battle of Rappahannock Bridge (November 1863)
Mine Run Campaign (November-December 1863)
Battle of Plymouth (April 1864)
Battle of New Bern (May 1864)
Battle of North Anna (May 1864)
Battle of Bethesda Church (May 1864)
Battle of Cold Harbour (June 1864)
Battle of Lynchburg (June 1864)
Battle of Monocacy (July 1864)
Battle of Fort Stevens (July 1864)
Second Battle of Kernstown (July 1864)
Third Battle of Winchester (September 1864)
Battle of Fisher’s Hill (September 1864)
Battle of Cedar Creek (October 1864)
Battle of Hacther’s Run (February 1865)
Battle of Fort Steedman (March 1865)
Battle of Sailor’s Creek (April 1865)
Battle of High Bridge (April 1865)
Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (April 1865)

10 Costliest Campaigns in the American Civil War

This is a list of the 10 costliest campaigns (by the number of killed, wounded, and missing not counting captured. Casualties usually counts captured but here it doesn’t.) during the American Civil War. A Campaign is a series of battles fought to achieve a goal.

10. Cumberland and Tennesse Rivers Campaign

Drawing of Union general C.F. Smith attacking during the Battle of Fort Donelson.

30,010 Total Casualties

February – May 1862; Result: Union Victory; Location: Stewart, Hardin, Henry Co. Tennessee and Alcorn Co. Mississippi.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Fort Donelson (4,145 Casualties), Battle of Shiloh (23,746 Casualties), Siege of Corinth (2,000 Casualties)

Union: 120,000 Strength; 16,778 Casualties
Confederacy: 65,000 Strength; 13,232 Casualties
Important Union Generals: Ulysses S. Grant, Henry Halleck, Don Carlos Buell, and Andrew Foote.
Important Confederate Generals: P.G.T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, Earl Van Dorn, John Floyd, Gideon Pillow, Llyod Tilghman (prisoner), Simon Bolivar Buckner (prisoner), and Albert Sidney Johnson (killed).

9. Chancellorsville Campaign

Union Soldiers of the VI Corps of the Army of the Potomac before the Second Battle of Fredericksburg.

30,351 Total Casualties

April – May 1863; Result: Confederate Victory; Location: Spotsylvania Co. Virginia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Chancellorsville (19,274 Casualties), Battle of Salem Church (9,546 Casualties), Second Battle of Fredericksburg (2,000 Casualties)

Union: 133,868 Strength; 17,287 Casualties
Strength: 60,298 Strength; 12,764 Casualties
Important Union Generals: Joseph Hooker, George Meade, John Sedgewick, George Stoneman, Daniel Sickles, Darious Couch, John Reynolds, Henry Slocum, Winfield Hancock, Alfred Pleasonton, William Averell, and Oliver Howard.
Important Confederate Generals: Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (killed), J.E.B. Stuart, Richard H. Anderson, George Pickett, A.P. Hill, Fitzhugh Lee, Wade Hampton, John Bell Hood, and Jubal Early.

8. Chickamauga Campaign

Painting of the Battle of Chickamauga.

34,624 Total Casualties

August – September 1863; Result: Confederate Victory; Location: Catoosa, Walker, Dade Co. Georgia and Hamilton Co. Tennessee.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Chickamauga (34,624 Casualties)

Union: 60,000 Strength; 16,170 Casualties.
Confederacy: 65,000 Strength; 18,454 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: William Rosecrans, George H. Thomas, Thomas Wood, Alexander McCook, James Negley, and John Widler.
Important Confederate Generals: Braxton Bragg, James Longstreet, John Bell Hood, John Breckenridge, Thomas Hindman, D.H. Hill.

7. Appomattox Campaign

High Bridge over the Appomattox River. Site of the Battle of High Bridge, April 6-7, 1865

35,780 Total Casualties

March – April 1865; Result: Confederate Victory; Location: Dinwiddie, Amelia, Prince Edward, Cumberland, and Appomattox Co. Virginia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Five Forks (3,800 Casualties), Third Battle of Petersburg (8,936 Casualties), Battle of Sailor’s Creek (8,848 Casualties)

Union: 114,335 Strength; 10,780 Casualties.
Confederacy: 56,000 Strength; 25,000 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: Ulysses S, Grant, George Meade, Edward O.C. Ord, Phillip Sheridan, Andrew Humphreys, Gouvener Warren, Horatio Wright, John Parke, John Gibbon, Godfrey Weitzel, Wesley Merritt, George Crook, and George Custer.
Important Confederate Generals: Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, John Gordon, A.P. Hill (killed), Richard H. Anderson, Fitzhugh Lee, Richard Ewell, Henry Wise, George Pickett, and Joseph Kershaw (all surrendered).

6. Maryland Campaign

Dead Confederate soldiers on Hagerstown Road after the Battle of Antietam.

44,501 Casualties Total

September 1862; Result: Union Victory; Location: Washington, Frederick Co. Maryland, Loudoun Co. Virginia, and Jefferson Co. West Virginia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Antietam (22,727 Casualties) and Battle of South Mountain (5,010 Casualties)

Union: 102,234 Strength; 28,272 Casualties.
Confederacy: 55,000 Strength; 16,229 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: George B. McClellan, Ambrose Burnside, William B. Franklin, Jesse L. Reno (killed), Fitz John Porter, Joseph Hooker, Edwin Summer, Joseph Mansfield, William Franklin, and Alfred Pleasonton.
Important Confederate Generals: Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, A.P. Hill, D.H. Hill, J.E.B. Stuart, William Pendelton, John Bell Hood, Wade Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee and Richard H. Anderson.

5. Peninsula Campaign

Union General Thomas F. Meagher at the Battle of Seven Pines (AKA Fair Oaks).

52,417 Total Casualties

March-July 1862; Result: Confederate Victory; Location: Mainly Henrico and Hanover Co., also York, James City, New Kent, and Chesterfield Co. Virginia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Seven Pines (11,565 Casualties), Battle of Gaines’ Mill (15,330 Casualties), Battle of Malvern Hill (8,650 Casualties), Battle of Glendale (7,470 Casualties)

Union: 105,587 Strength; 23, 119 Casualties.
Confederacy: 112,220 Strength; 29,298 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: George B. McClellan, Samuel Heintzleman, Winfield Hancock, Fitz John Porter, Edwin Summer, Erasmus Keyes, John Sedgewick, Joseph Hooker, Darious Couch, George Sykes, and George Stoneman.
Important Confederate Generals: Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston (wounded), John Magruder, James Longstreet, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, D.H. Hill, Jubal Early, A.P. Hill, Richard H. Anderson, Jubal Early, George Pickett, Joseph Kershaw, J.E.B. Stuart, Wade Hampton (wounded), and Gustavus Smith.

4. Gettysburg Campaign

A drawing of the Battle of Brandy Station, which was the largest cavalry battle of the War.

64,043 Total Casualties

June – July 1863; Result: Union Victory; Location: Spotsylvania, Stafford, Culpepper, Frederick, Loudoun, Fairfax, and Warren Co. Virginia, York, Cumberland, Adams, and Franklin Co. Pennsylvania, and Washington Co. Maryland.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Gettysburg (51,049 Casualties), Second Battle of Winchester (4,712 Casualties), Battle of Brandy Station (1,530 Casualties)

Union: 104,256 Strength; 32,043 Casualties.
Confederacy: 75,000 Strength; 32,000 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: George Meade, Joseph Hooker, John Reynolds, Winfield Hancock, Daniel Sickles (wounded), George Sykes, John Sedgewick, Oliver Howard, Henry Slocum, Alfred Pleasonton, Robert Milroy, and Judson Kilpatrick.
Important Confederate Generals: Robert E. Lee, J.E.B. Stuart, A.P. Hill, Fitzhugh Lee, James Longstreet, Richard Ewell, George Pickett, John Bell Hood, Jubal Early, Richard H. Anderson, Henry Heth, and Wade Hampton.

3. Atlanta Campaign

Burning of Atlanta, Georgia by Sherman’s army.

66,666 Total Casualties

May – September 1864; Result: Union Victory; Location: Whitfield, Gordon, Calhoun, Bartow, Paulding, Cobb, Lee, Fulton, DeKalb, Coweta, and Clayton Co. Georgia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of Resaca (7,000 Casualties), Battle of Kennesaw Mountain (4,000 Casualties), Battle of Peachtree Creek (4,400 Casualties), Battle of Atlanta (9,222 Casualties), Battle of Ezra Church (3,642 Casualties)

Union: 112,819 Strength; 31,687 Casualties.
Confederacy: 78,000 Strength; 34,979 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: William T. Sherman, George H. Thomas, James McPherson (killed), John Schofield, Oliver Howard, and Joesph Hooker.
Important Confederate Generals: Joseph E. Johnston, John Bell Hood, William Hardee, Leonidas Polk (killed), Joseph Wheeler, Thomas Hindman, Patrick Cleburne.

2. Richmond-Petersburg Campaign

Confederate trenches after the battles. Petersburg, Virginia, April 3, 1865.

70,000 Total Casualties

June 1864 – March 1865; Result: Union Victory; Location: Mainly Henrico and Dinwiddie Co. and Petersburg, Virginia also Prince George, Brunswick, Charlotte, Greensville, Halifax, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nottoway, and Sussex Co. Virginia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Second Battle of Petersburg (15,386), Battle of the Crater (5,289), Second Battle of Deep Bottom (4,399), Battle of Globe Tavern (5,916), Battle of Fort Stedman (5,044)

Union: 125,000 Strength; 42,000 Casualties.
Confederacy: 60,000 Strength; 28,000 Casualties.
Important Union Generals: Ulysses S. Grant, George Meade, Benjamin Butler, Winfield Hancock, Gouvener Warren, Horatio Wright, Ambrose Burnside, Phillip Sheridan, Godfrey Weitzel, David Birney, Edward O.C. Ord, and William F. Smith.
Important Confederate Generals: Robert E. Lee, P.G.T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, Richard Ewell, A.P. Hill, Richard H. Anderson, George Pickett, Jubal Early, Wade Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee, and Robert Hoke.

1. Overland Campaign

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House fought May 9-21, 1864, was the largest battle of the Overland Campaign.

89,926 Total Casualties

May – June 1864; Result: Union Victory, despite taking 44% casualties. Confederate took 54% Casualties; Location: Spotsylvania, Orange, Henrico, Caroline, Hanover, Charles City, and Louisa Co. Virginia.

Major Battles in Campaign: Battle of the Wilderness (28,699 Casualties), Battle of Spotsylvania Court House (31,086 Casualties), Battle of Cold Harbor (18,025 Casualties)

Union: 124,232 Strength; 54,926 Casualties.
Confederacy: 65,000 Strength; 35,000 Casualties.
Ulysses S. Grant, George Meade, Ambrose Burnside, Winfield Hancock, John Sedgewick (killed), Phillip Sheridan, William F. Smith, David Birney, and Horatio Wright.
Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet (wounded), Richard Ewell, A.P. Hill, J.E.B. Stuart (killed), Richard H. Anderson, Jubal Early, Henry Heth, George Pickett, Wade Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee, and Robert Rodes.

Fake History & Neo-con Narratives: Where’s the Freedom in That?

By Houston, Gabriel, & Ezekiel Dillingham

September 15, 2022

For the last two years, we’ve taken Bradley Fish’s two history courses on the Ron Paul Homeschool Curriculum. The first class covered mostly ancient and medieval history, which was enjoyable and informative. However, his modern history was brimming with errors, partial truths, and neo-conservative takes on the events of the past 200 years. It’s shocking this class is coming from such a freedom-minded curriculum as Ron Paul.

Slavery and Ante-Bellum America

Starting with Lesson 33, Fish begins to talk about slavery. He said, “Slave labor was cheap and plantation owners had slaves because they didn’t want to pay employees.” Slaves were actually more expensive than paying employees, considering the healthcare, housing, food and water owners were required to give them. In fact, slaves in the South had longer lifespans than white factory workers in the North.  

In the next lesson, he failed to mention that “Free States” didn’t mean that slaves were free there; it meant those states were almost entirely free of black people, since the people living there didn’t want blacks to live among them. He also claimed that slaves “ran the plantations” which is partially true. In some instances, a plantation could have had a black foreman, however owners still operated and oversaw their plantation.

Predictably, Fish began to paint Southerners as evil and Northerners as righteous and morally correct, setting up the false dichotomy. He stated, “[Northerners] were morally opposed to the idea that someone could own another,” and that Northern religious groups “worked hard to end slavery in the United States” and “often assisted slaves to freedom when they ran away from their masters.” Most Northerners didn’t care about slaves at all, and the myth that they assisted them to “freedom” is wildly exaggerated. In fact, Black Codes, many worse than segregation in the Jim Crow South, are what freed men found in the self-righteous North. Thus slavery was not a moral issue, since blacks were not only not welcome, but treated worse in the North than in the South. 

He claimed that Southerners thought the North was attacking their “way of life” and were angry that “The federal government was not doing enough to keep their property from running away from them,” as if Southerners’ only complaint was solely about slavery. This pushed the naive and false narrative that the Southern world revolved around keeping blacks in bondage.

Fish called James Buchanan one of the worst presidents in American history and lists “his indecision over the secession of Southern states [as] among the worst decisions made by a President.” Buchanan actually did the right thing by not illegally invading the south like Abraham Lincoln. Personally, Buchanan opposed secession but understood that each state had both a legal and moral right to secede from the Union. Pushing the Lincolnian view, Fish proclaimed that slavery was “the main topic of the day” making it seem like it was the sinless North versus the racist South. 

In reality, the North didn’t have any moral problem with slavery, but used it as a weapon since they wanted to tax and overpower the South. Moreover, slavery was absolutely an issue when it came to representation in Congress: if slavery were allowed in the new territories, it would result in republicans being overpowered at the federal level. 

Fish “ranked among the worst Presidents of the United States” not only Buchanan, but also Taylor, Fillmore, and Pierce because of their “weakness and indecision on the main topic of the day.” In other words, he thought if these presidents had unconstitutionally or violently ended slavery earlier, there wouldn’t have been the War.

The Civil War and Reconstruction

The Bombardment of Fort Sumter in 1861.

Just like his pre-war lessons, Fish again portrays the South as evil and fighting for slavery and the North as liberators fighting to free blacks from Southern enslavement. In Lesson 63, he says, “As a supporter of keeping the Union together, [Lincoln] realized that one side of the slavery debate would have to come out on top sooner or later.” Slavery wasn’t going to “come out on top” because it had been slowly but surely dying out before the “Civil War” began. Southerners understood that immediately emancipating two million people overnight wasn’t such a good idea. Not only would slave owners not be compensated for their loss of property, but also slaves would not be properly educated or taught skills before being freed. In fact, gradual emancipation already existed in the south, but was complicated and costly. 

Slavery was primarily a political issue. If Southern slave states were outnumbered, the North would vote to put tariffs on the South’s main exports of cotton and tobacco, thus raising taxes on Southern citizens. In contrast, the North’s taxes wouldn’t be raised at all and Northern factories would still benefit from Southern products, giving the industrial Union a drastic economic edge. This is obviously contradictory to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 1 of the US Constitution, which states, “all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;” After a while, Southerners had enough of this and exercised their Constitutional right to secede, leave the United States, and form their own country. When Lincoln “saved the Union,” he actually launched a completely unconstitutional and devastating war that lasted 4 years, killed over 700,000 Americans, and caused strife and resentment that still lasts today. 

Doubling down, Fish remarked, “By 1863, many of the freed slaves had organized into their own regiments and joined the War on the side of the Union.” Sure, colored regiments in the Union army did exist, but he forgot to mention that there were also colored regiments of free, volunteer blacks in the Confederate Army. Contrary to popular belief, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation didn’t free a single slave anywhere. The Proclamation only applied to areas where the Union Army wasn’t present. Slaves in the Union-occupied South were kept in bondage so they could be used as labor for the Union war effort. It had the dual purpose of stopping Great Britain, who abolished slavery in 1833, from supporting the Confederacy and to inspire slave uprisings in the South, where women, old men, and children remained. This never happened below the Mason-Dixon Line, but ironically it did start riots in the North, where angry Northerners protested the newly instituted draft and the Emancipation Proclamation, by lynching hundreds of blacks for three days in the streets of New York City. No slaves were freed until the 13th Amendment was added to the Constitution in 1865. 

Yet another half truth, Fish referred to Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest as the “grand wizard” of the Ku Klux Klan. While it is true that Forrest was involved with the Klan, this is false as the KKK originated as a social movement for Confederate veterans, who were more focused on reacting to radical reconstruction and military occupation than hating blacks. It was completely different from the KKK of the 20th Century. Forrest wasn’t the grand wizard of the KKK either, but merely loaned his name to the group. When the Klan turned violent in resistance to the corrupt Freedmen’s Bureau, the placement of blacks as puppet politicians, and carpetbaggers, he even disassociated himself with it. 

20th Century

The Sinking of the RMS Lusitania.

Fish wasn’t just wrong about the War Between the States and slavery, but he also made many mistakes about the 20th century, especially World War I, which he began discussing in Lesson 96. He said, “President Wilson finally asked Congress to declare war in April 1917, when Germany repeatedly ignored US neutrality and sunk American ships.” Germany only sank one ship with American citizens on board, the RMS Lusitania.

In addition to carrying passengers, the Lusitania carried military weaponry and supplies to the Allies in Europe. Despite claiming he wanted the US to stay out of the war in Europe, Wilson and many others in Washington wanted war with Germany and the Central Powers. The Lusitania can’t be considered a passenger ship if it was carrying military aid to the Allies. 

Moreover, the Zimmerman Telegram was actually the final straw that made the US declare war on Germany. A message supposedly sent from Germany to Mexico asking the Mexicans if they would attack the US, was intercepted by the British. Wilson needed a reason to go to war with Germany, so he used the Lusitania as an excuse. There would’ve been no reason to enter the conflict if the US had acted as a neutral country and not provided military aid to a power directly involved in the conflict. 

 Fish constantly referred to Germany during World War I as “Prussia.” From 1871-1918, it was called the German Empire. At that point, the Kingdom of Prussia was within the German Empire. That would be the equivalent of referring to the United States during World War I as New York. Other similar examples of him using incorrect terms are him calling the Russian Army during WWI the “Red Army” and calling Germany an Axis power during WWI; both are simply wrong. 

Fish failed to mention the British naval blockade of Germany, which deprived the German people of food during a European-wide famine throughout and even after the war. Some 770,000 German civilians died because of this. The British only lifted the blockade after the Treaty of Versailles was officially agreed upon, meaning Germans were still starving after Germany sued for peace and signed the armistice with the Allies.

Shockingly, Fish called the Treaty of Versailles and all its conditions “very just.” He goes on, “When you wrong someone, you should be forced to repay.” A fair assessment is that there wasn’t one country that was totally in the right during WWI; all of the countries on both sides wronged each other. The only reason the Germans had to pay reparations was because they lost. He stated, “Germans were only angry and resentful over the terms of the Treaty of Versailles because they had not been forced to do this on many occasions.” He then failed to give examples of these other occasions. Why should the German people be punished for something their government did even if they supported or approved of it?

How was Germany the “instigator?” Every country in Europe was looking for a reason to go to war with each other. Germany wasn’t any more at fault for the war than Britain or France. The Nazis most likely wouldn’t have risen to power if it hadn’t been for the Treaty of Versailles and what it did to the German people. There would have been no WWII if the Allies didn’t punish the Central Powers with humiliating treaties and arbitrarily split up their lands amongst themselves.

 Moving on to WWII, he called Manchuria an island, which is definitely not true. He also said that when Japan conquered Manchuria, it was in Russian possession. Actually, it was Chinese when they invaded in 1931.

When talking about the Civil Rights Movement in Lesson 133, Fish associated segregation and discrimination with each other. While there was discrimination, it wasn’t because blacks had to drink out of different water fountains or stand in the back of the bus. Rather, segregation wasn’t one sided since whites had to stick to the segregation laws just as much as blacks did. While forced racial segregation isn’t just, well neither is forced integration. People should be able to mix or disassociate with whomever they want.

In Lesson 151 when discussing Bill Clinton, Fish mentioned the Lewinsky scandal and the president’s impeachment, but didn’t even mention Waco or Ruby Ridge. These tragic instances of unlawful murder of American citizens both occurred during Clinton’s tenure. 

21st Century

U.S. Soldiers in Afghanistan in 2001.

In more modern history, Fish stated that the United States declared war on Afghanistan in 2001, which is false. There was no declaration of war by the US Congress, so the “military action” was unconstitutional. Consequently, 9/11 set the stage for the supposed War on Terror that’s still going on today. It’s been used as a pretext to start illegal wars, grow the government’s power, and diminish liberty ever since. 

The 2003 war in Iraq had nothing to do with finding the people who planned the 9/11 attacks because Iraq wasn’t harboring any of them. Iraq’s possession of weapons of mass destruction was the reason given for the invasion. This would be an unjust cause in the first place (apparently America is allowed things other countries can’t have), but no such weapons were ever found in Iraq. The war was really about finally overthrowing Iraq’s president, Saddam Hussein, making money for US politicians and increasing the surveillance state through the Patriot Act.

 In the reading for Lesson 159, Fish claimed there was Russian interference in the 2016 election – a laughable assertion since there is no physical evidence for it. It’s also funny that he mentioned “Russian collusion” but when discussing Biden’s election in 2020 didn’t mention it was obviously stolen with there being actual evidence and videos showing fake ballots being counted. And because of the loose regulations with voter ID, people were able to vote twice and get away with it. He pointed out, however, that Trump didn’t attend Biden’s inauguration ceremony, implying that he was a sore loser. In the daily reading, Fish wrote about January 6, 2021: After Trump’s speech, “a violent mob stormed the Capitol; five people died,” pushing the whole “incitement of insurrection” myth. With instructors like this, public schools ain’t looking so bad.

Bradley Fish teaches on a conservative website, but for some reason pushed normie/neo-conservative narratives. Although some of his lessons are quite good, like the ones on economics, it’s as if he used Wikipedia or CNN as his main source for too many of the modern history lessons. I urge the Ron Paul Curriculum to check their instructors a little more before they hire them instead of helping to spread fake history to families who are fleeing government schools and are desperate for quality classes. The garbage that Fish teaches definitely isn’t what the great freedom-fighter Ron Paul supports nor is it what curriculum supporters deserve.