American States and Canadian Provinces Part 2

Montana (West) 

Montana flag

Capital: Helena

Largest city: Billings

Population: 1 Million 

Size: 147,040 sq. miles

Date joined union: November 8, 1889

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Granite Peak 12,807 feet tall 

Sphinx Mountain, Montana

Nebraska (West) 

Nebraska flag

Capital: Lincoln 

Largest city: Omaha

Population: 1.9 Million 

Size: 77,358 sq. miles

Date joined union: March 1, 1867 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Panorama Point 5,424 feet tall 

Chimney Rock, Nebraska

Nevada (West) 

Nevada flag

Capital: Carson City

Largest city: Las Vegas

Population: 3 Million 

Size: 110,557 sq. miles

Date joined union: October 31, 1864

Main languages: None

 Tallest point: Boundary Peak 13,147 feet tall

Las Vegas skyline, Nevada

New Hampshire (New England) 

New Hampshire flag

Capital: Concord 

Largest city: Manchester

Population: 1.3 Million 

Size: 9,349 sq. miles

Date joined union: June 21, 1788 

Main languages: English, French

Tallest point: Mount Washington 6,288 feet tall 

Tichfield Abbey, New Hampshire

New Jersey (New England) 

New Jersey flag

Capital: Trenton 

Largest city: Newark 

Population: 8.8 Million 

Size: 8,722 sq. miles

Date joined union: December 18, 1787 

Main languages: English, Spanish, Indic, Chinese, and Korean

Tallest point: High Point 1,803 feet tall 

Cape May Bunker in New Jersey

New Mexico (West) 

New Mexico flag

Capital: Santa Fe

Largest city: Albuquerque

Population: 2 Million 

Size: 121,590 sq. miles

Date joined union: January 6, 1912

Main languages: English, Spanish, and Navajo 

Tallest point: Wheeler Peak 13,161 feet tall 

El Santuario Church in New Mexico

New York (New England) 

New York flag

Capital: Albany 

Largest city: New York City 

Population: 19.4 Million 

Size: 54,555 sq. miles

Date joined union: July 26, 1788 

Main languages: English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and Russian

Tallest point: Mount Marcy 5,344 feet tall 

Statue of Liberty in Manhattan, New York

North Carolina (South) 

North Carolina flag

Capital: Raleigh 

Largest city: Charlotte 

Population: 10.4 Million 

Size: 53,819 sq. miles

Date joined union: November 21, 1789 

Main languages: English, Spanish

Tallest point: Mount Mitchell 6,684 feet tall 

Hatteras Ligthouse in Hatteras Island, North Carolina

North Dakota (West) 

North Dakota flag

Capital: Bismarck 

Largest city: Fargo 

Population: 762,062 

Size: 70,704 sq. miles

Date joined union: November 2, 1889 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: White Butte 3,606 feet tall 

Buffalo landmark in North Dakota

Ohio (New England) 

Ohio flag

Capital: Columbus (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Cleveland

Population: 11.6 Million 

Size: 44,825 sq. miles

Date joined union: March 1, 1803

Main languages: English, Spanish

Tallest point: Campbell Hill 1,549 feet tall 

Indians baseball park in Cleveland, Ohio

Oklahoma (West) 

Oklahoma flag

Capital: Oklahoma City (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Tulsa

Population: 3.9 Million 

Size: 69,899 sq. miles

Date joined union: November 16, 1907 

Main languages: English, Choctaw, and Cherokee

Tallest point: Black Mesa 4,975 feet tall 

Cherokee trail of tears monument in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Oregon (Pacific) 

Oregon flag

Capital: Salem

Largest city: Portland

Population: 4.2 Million 

Size: 98,381 sq. miles

Date joined union: February 14, 1859 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Mount Hood 11,249 feet tall 

Crater lake in Klamath Falls, Oregon

Pennsylvania (New England) 

Pennsylvania flag

Capital: Harrisburg 

Largest city: Philadelphia

Population: 12.8 Million 

Size: 46,055 sq. miles

Date joined union: December 12, 1787 

Main languages: English, Spanish, German, Chinese, and Italian 

Tallest point: Mount Davis 3,213 feet tall 

Gettysburg National Military Park in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

Rhode Island (New England) 

Rhode Island flag

Capital: Providence (and largest city)

2nd largest city: Cranston 

Population: 1 Million 

Size: 1,214 sq. miles

Date joined union: May 29, 1790 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Jerimoth Hill 812 feet tall 

Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island

South Carolina (South) 

South Carolina flag

Capital: Columbia (and largest city)

2nd largest city: Charleston 

Population: 5.1 Million 

Size: 32,020 sq. miles

Date joined union: May 23, 1788 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Sassafras Mountain 3,560 feet tall 

Morris Island lightouse in Folly Beach, South Carolina

South Dakota (West) 

South Dakota flag

Capital: Pierre

 Largest city: Sioux City

Population: 884,659 

Size: 77,116 sq. miles

Date joined union: November 2, 1889 

Main languages: English, Sioux

Tallest point: Black Elk Peak 7,244 feet tall 

Mount Rushmore in Keystone, South Dakota

Tennessee (South) 

Tennessee flag

Capital: Nashville (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Memphis

Population: 6.8 Million 

Size: 42,143 sq. miles

Date joined union: June 1, 1796 

Main languages: English, Spanish

Tallest point: Clingmans Dome 6,643 feet tall 

Skyline of Knoxville, Tennessee

Texas (South) 

Texas flag

Capital: Austin 

Largest city: Houston 

Population: 29.3 Million 

Size: 268,596 sq. miles

Date joined union: December 29, 1845 

Main languages: English, Spanish

Tallest point: Guadalupe Peak 8,751 feet tall 

The battle of the Alamo historic site in San Antonio, Texas

Utah (West) 

Utah flag

Capital: Salt Lake City (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: West Valley City

Population: 3.2 Million 

Size: 84,899 sq. miles

Date joined union: January 4, 1896 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Kings Peak 13,534 feet tall 

Delicate Arch part of Arches National Park, Utah

Vermont (New England) 

Vermont flag

Capital: Montpelier 

Largest city: Burlington 

Population: 623,989

Size: 9,616 sq. miles

Date joined union: March 4, 1791 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Mount Mansfield 4,395 feet tall 

Red covered bridge in Morristown, Vermont

Virginia (South) 

Virginia flag

Capital: Richmond 

Largest city: Virginia Beach

Population: 8.5 Million 

Size: 42,774 sq. miles

Date joined union: June 25, 1788 

Main languages: English, Spanish

Tallest point: Mount Rogers 5,729 feet tall 

George Washington monument Richmond, Virginia

Washington (Pacific)

Washington flag

Capital: Olympia

Largest city: Seattle

Population: 7.6 Million

Size: 71,362 sq. miles

Date joined union: November 11, 1889

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Mount Rainer 14,411 feet tall

The Space Needle in Seattle, Washington

West Virginia (South) 

West Virginia flag

Capital: Charleston (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Huntington 

Population: 1.7 Million

Size: 24,230 sq. miles

Date joined union: June 20, 1863 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Spruce Knob 4,863 feet tall 

West Virginia capitol building in Charleston, West Virginia

Wisconsin (Midwest) 

Wisconsin flag

Capital: Madison 

Largest city: Milwaukee 

Population: 5.8 Million 

Size: 65,498 sq. miles

Date joined union: May 29, 1848 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Timms Hill 1,951 feet tall 

Salem Lutheran Church in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Wyoming (West) 

Wyoming flag

Capital: Cheyenne (and largest city)

2nd largest city: Casper

Population: 578,759 

Size: 97,914 sq. miles

Date joined union: July 10, 1890 

Main languages: English

Tallest point: Gannett Peak 13,809 

Devils tower in Crook County, Wyoming


Modern Countries Part 6

Montenegro (Europe)

Montenegro flag

Capital: Podgorica 

Population: 622,359

Size: 5,333 sq. miles

Currency: Euro

Tallest point: Bobotov Kuk 8,728 feet tall

Main religion: Christain 75.9%

Main languages: Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Albanian

About: On June 3, 2006, Montenegro gained independence from Serbia. 

Aman Sveti Stefan hotel, Montenegro

Morocco (Africa)

Morocco flag

Capital: Rabat

Population: 37.1 Million

Size: 274,460 sq. miles

Currency: Moroccan Dirham

Tallest point: Toubkal 13,671 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 99%

Main languages: Arabic, Berber, Hassaniya, English, and Spanish

About: On April 7, 1956, Morocco became independent from France. It was a protectorate of France since 1912. 

Hassan tower in Rabat, Morocco

Mozambique (Africa)

Mozambique flag

Capital: Maputo

Population: 30 Million

Size: 309,500 sq. miles

Currency: Mozambican Metical 

Tallest point: Monte Binga 8,004 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 56.1%

Main languages: Portuguese, Swahili, Mwana, Chewa, and Tsonga

About: On March 1, 1498 Mozambique was colonized by Portugal. It was known as Portuguese East Africa. On June 25, 1975, Mozambique gained independence from Portugal.

Train station in Maputo, Mozambique

Myanmar (AKA Burma) (Asia)

Myanmar flag

Capital: Naypyidaw 

Population: 53.5 Million

Size: 261,228 sq. miles

Currency: Kyat

Tallest point: Hkakabo Razi 19,295 feet tall

Main religion: Buddhism 87.9%

Main language: Burmese, Kachin, Kayah, Karen, and Chin

About: On January 4, 1948, Myanmar gained independence from Britain. It was formerly part of British Burma.

Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar.

Namibia (Africa)

Namibia flag

Capital: Windhoek

Population: 2.7 Million

Size: 318,772 sq. miles

Currency: Namibian Dollar and South African Rand

Tallest point: Brandberg Mountain 8,442 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 87.9%

Main languages: English, Afrikaans, German, Otijherero, and Khoekhoegowab

About: On February 9, 1990, Namibia gained independence from South Africa.

Christuskirche in Windhoek, Namibia

Nauru (Australia and the Pacific)

Nauru flag

Capital: Yaren

Population: 10,670

Size: 8 sq. miles

Currency: Australian Dollar

Tallest point: Unnamed location 213 feet tall

Main religion: ???

Main languages: Nauruan and English

About: On January 31, 1968, Nauru gained independence from Britain. 

Japanese ww2 guns in Yaren, Nauru

Nepal (Asia)

Nepal flag

Capital: Kathmandu

Population: 28 Million

Size: 56,956 sq. miles

Currency: Nepalese Rupee

Tallest point: Mount Everest 29,031 feet tall (Tallest mountain in the world)

Main religion: Hinduism 81.3%

Main languages: Nepali, Limbu, Maithili, Nepalbhasa, and Angika

About: Nepal became a country in 1768. It was then known as the Kingdom of Nepal.

Kathmandu, Nepal

Netherlands (Europe)

Netherlands flag

Capital: Amsterdam

Population: 17.4 Million

Size: 16,164 sq. miles

Currency: Euro and United States Dollar

Tallest point: Vaalserberg 1,058 feet tall

Main religion: No religion 50.1%

Main languages: Dutch, English, Papiamentu, West Frisian, and Dutch Low Saxon

About: In 1940, the Netherlands were invaded by Nazi Germany. On May 5, 1945, the Netherlands were liberated by American, British, and Canadian troops. 

Windmill in Alkmaar, Netherlands

New Zealand (Australia and the Pacific)

New Zealand flag

Capital: Wellington 

Population: 5.1 Million

Size: 103,483 sq. miles

Currency: New Zealand Dollar

Tallest point: Mount Cook (Aoraki) 12,218 feet tall

Main religion: No religion 48.5%

Main languages: English and Maori

About: On September 26, 1907, the Dominion of New Zealand was declared. They gained independence from Britain on that day. 

Kiwi monument in New Zealand

Nicaragua (North America)

Nicaragua flag

Capital: Managua

Population: 6.4 Million

Size: 50,338 sq. miles

Currency: Cordoba

Tallest point: Cerro Mogoton 6,500 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 84.4%

Main languages: Spanish, English, Miskito, Rama, and Sumo

About: On May 31, 1838, Nicaragua became independent from the Federal Republic of Central America. 

Statue of Ruben Dario in Managua, Nicaragua

Niger (Africa)

Niger flag

Capital: Niamey

Population: 22.4 Million

Size: 489,000 sq. miles

Currency: CFA Franc

 Tallest point: Mont Idoukal-n-Taghes 6,634 feet tall

Main religion: Islam 99%

Main languages: French, Arabic, Buduma, Fulfulde, and Gourmanchema

About: On August 3, 1960, Niger became independent from France. 

Grand mosque in Niamey, Niger

Nigeria (Africa)

Nigeria flag

Capital: Abuja

Population: 206.6 Million 

Size: 356,669 sq. miles

Currency: Naira

Tallest point: Chappal Waddi (Gangirwal) 7,936 feet tall

Main religion: Islam 50%

Main languages: English, Yoruba, Hausa, and Igbo

About: On October 1, 1960, Nigeria became independent from the British Empire. 

Zuma rock near Abuja, Nigeria

Norway (Europe)

Norway flag

Capital: Oslo

Population: 5.3 Million 

Size: 148,729 sq. miles

Currency: Norwegian Krone

Tallest point: Galdhopiggen 8,100 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 75.6%

Main languages: Norwegian, Sami, and Kven

About: In 1940, Norway was invaded by Nazi Germany. After WW2 in 1945, it was independent again. 

Bergenhus fortress in Bergen, Norway

Oman (Asia)

Oman flag

Capital: Muscat

Population: 4.8 Million 

Size: 119,500 sq. miles

Currency: Rial

Tallest point: Jebel Akhdar 9,780 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 100%

Main languages: Arabic

About: Oman was established in 130 AD. It was the Azd tribe who controlled it. It was part of the Ottoman Empire.

Riyam monument in Muscat, Oman

Pakistan (Asia)

Pakistan flag

Capital: Islamabad

Population: 212.2 Million

Size: 340,509 sq. miles

Currency: Pakistani Rupee

Tallest point: K2 28,251 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 96.2%

Main languages: English, Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, and Sindhi 

About: On August 14, 1947, Pakistan became independent from the British Empire. It was formerly part of British India. It was divided into Pakistan, for Muslims, and India, for Hindus. 

Lahore fort in Lahore, Pakistan

Palau (Australia and the Pacific)

Palau flag

Capital: Ngerulmud 

Population: 17,907 

Size: 177 sq. miles

Currency: United States Dollar

Tallest point : Ngerchelchuus 794 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 89.7%

Main languages: English, Palauan, and Japanese 

About: During WW2 Palau was invaded by the United States. On July 18, 1947, it became independent from the United States. 

Arch landmark in Palau

Palestine (AKA West Bank) (Asia)

Palestine flag

Capital: Jerusalem (Disputed) 

Population: 5.1 Million 

Size: 2,320 sq. miles

Currency: Egyptian Pound, Israeli Shekel, and Jordanian Dinar

Tallest point: Mount Hermon 9,232 feet tall

Main religion: Islam ???%

Main languages: Arabic

About: On November 15, 1988, Palestine became independent from Israel. Its land is still disputed with Israel, and it is not part of the United Nations. 

Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

Panama (North America)

Panama flag

Capital: Panama City

Population: 4.1 Million 

Size: 29,119 sq. miles

Currency: Balboa and United States Dollar

Tallest point: Baru Volcano 11,401 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 91.5%

Main languages: Spanish

About: On November 3, 1903, Panama became independent from Colombia. 

Panama La Vieja in Panama City, Panama

Papua New Guinea (Australia and the Pacific)

Papua New Guinea flag

Capital: Port Moresby 

Population: 8.9 Million

Size: 178,700 sq. miles

Currency: Papua New Guinean Kina 

Tallest point: Mount Wilhelm 14,793 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 95.5% 

Main languages: English, Hiri Motu, Tok Pisin, German, and Madang 

About: On September 16, 1975, Papua New Guinea became independent from Australia. 

Volcano in Papua New Guinea

Paraguay (South America)

Paraguay flag

Capital: Asuncion 

Population: 7.2 Million 

Size: 157,050 sq. miles

Currency: Guarani 

Tallest point: Cerro Pero 2,297 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 96.1%

Main languages: Spanish, Guarani 

About: On May 14, 1811, Paraguay became independent from the Spanish Empire. 

Iguazu falls in Paraguay

Peru (South America)

Peru flag

Capital: Lima

Population: 32.8 Million 

Size: 496,225 sq. miles

Currency: Sol 

Tallest point: Huascaran 22,132 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 94.5%

Main languages: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara

About: On July 28, 1821, Peru became independent from the Spanish Empire. 

Machu Picchu in Cuzco, Peru

Philippines (Asia)

Philippines flag

Capital: Manila 

Population: 106.6 Million 

Size: 120,000 sq. miles

Currency: Peso

Tallest point: Mount Apo 9,692 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 92%

Main languages: Filipino, English, Spanish, Arabic, and Aklanon 

About: After the Spanish-American war, the Philippines were occupied by the United States. From 1942-1945, the Philippines were occupied by the Japanese Empire. Finally, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines became independent from the United States of America. 

The Chocolate hills, Philippines

Poland (Europe)

Poland flag (Same as Monaco flag)

Capital: Warsaw

Population: 38.3 Million 

Size: 120,773 sq. miles

Currency: Polish Zloty

Tallest point: Rysy 8,212 feet tall

Main religion: Christain 94.1%

Main languages: Polish

About: In 1989, when the Berlin wall fell, Poland became independent from the Soviet Union. 

Gdansk, Poland


Largest Empires in History

  • British Empire
  • Mongol Empire
  • Russian Empire
  • Spanish Empire

British Empire (peak 1920) 

In 1497, King Henry VIII sent John Cabot on an expedition to North America. Cabot landed in Newfoundland modern day Canada. In 1583, Humphrey Gilbert set up a colony in Newfoundland. Gilbert died on the journey back to England. In 1584, sir Walter Raeligh founded the Roanoke colony in North Carolina, but the colony failed due to lack of supplies. In 1607, the Jamestown colony was set up in Virginia. In 1620, the Plymouth bay colony was established in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Plymouth, Massachusetts

In the 1620s colonies St. Kitts and Nevis and in Barbados were set up. A colony in Bermuda was also set up. In the Americas, many states were set up for different types of Christain. For example Maryland was for Catholics and Connecticut was for Congregationalists. In west Africa multiple colonies were also set up. In the 1710s the British gained colonies in Canada from the French and in Newfoundland. In the recent war Britain had defeated Spain and conquered Gibraltar and parts of the Balearic islands. In 1739 the War of Jenkin’s Ear began against the Spanish. The war had started because Captain Robert Jenkin, a British sailor had his ear cut off by Spanish Pirates.

British and Spanish ships fighting in the War of Jenkin’s Ear

During the middle of the 1700s the British East India Company had been gaining ever more control over the Mughal Empire in India. In 1770 British sailor James Cook had found many islands in the Pacific Ocean. The main islands were Australia and New Zealand, but there were also other ones like the Cook Islands.  In 1756 the Seven Years’ War had started as a result of British and French strife. It was a global conflict but most of the fighting was in North America. In 1760s Britain had been economically weakened by the Seven
Years’ War, so they made new taxes on the Thirteen Colonies to pay for it. In 1776 the American Revolution began.  Lasting until 1783, the Americans won.

The Battle of Guilford Courthouse in the American Revolution

In the early 1800s tensions rose once again between the British and the Americans. The British had been sailing their navy over to America and forcing men at gunpoint to join the navy. So in 1812 the War of 1812 started. It went on until 1814. After the defeat of Napoleon Britain started to rapidly expand. In 1811 they colonized Java, in 1819 they colonized Singapore, in 1824 they colonized Malacca, and in 1826 they colonized Burma. During the First Opium War the British captured Hong Kong from the Qing Dynasty. During most of the 19th century Britain and other European countries all rushed to colonize Africa. It is commonly known as the “Scramble for Africa.” In 1875 Britain gained full control of Egypt and held it for most of the 20th century.

Map of colonial Africa. (Light Red British)

In 1914, World War 1 started. Britain didn’t join until the Germans had started their invasion of Holland. During the war Britain lost hundreds of thousands of men, but they had gained lots of territory, mostly from Germany’s colonies in Africa. They gained lots of land in the Middle east from the Ottomans. Britain also gained land in the Pacific. In 1921 Britain had reached its territorial peak. The countries it had was: Canada, Bahamas, Many Caribbean islands, Belize, Jamaica, Guyana, Falklands, South Georgia, Egypt, Sudan, Somililand, Uganda, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Tanzania, Malawi, Tangakiya Territory, Rhodesia, South Africa, Namibia, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Singapore, parts of Thailand, parts of Malaysia, Brunei, parts of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and lots of Pacific islands.

Map of British Empire near its peak

Mongol Empire (peak 1259) 

The Mongol Empire was one of the largest empires in history. It came from Mongolia and East Asia. When Genghis Khan became emperor in 1206 he decided to start conquering every country around him. One of the first countries he attacked was the Jin Dynasty (modern day China). He took some of the far northern parts of China. Then he fixed his attention to the west. He took all Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and others. He also conquered most of Siberia and even reached Ukraine.

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan died in 1227. His successor was Ogedei. He won a great victory against a Chinese warlord and took Manchuria. He defeated the Bulgars (Turkic/Bulgarian tribe) also. In 1230 he led a campaign against the Jin Dynasty. In 1234 Ogedei defeated the Jin Dynasty. In Southern Persia some of the tribes there joined the Mongols willingly. Ogedei tried to invade Korea but had little success. They also started an offensive against the Song Dynasty of China. The Song Dynasty actually helped them fight the Jin Dynasty. Batu Khan was the new leader of the Mongol Empire. Batu destroyed the Principality of Vladimir at the Battle of Sit River.

Mongols burning Suzdal

The Mongols started their invasion of Poland and Hungary, and after this a couple of the countries in Europe formed an anti-Mongol alliance. In 1241 Ogedei died causing the Mongols to retreat from Central Europe. Although Ogedei was not the leader of the Golden horde, they still had to have a ceremony for his death. In 1246 Batu’s brother, Guyuk succeeded  the throne. In 1248, Guyuk died, and Mongke Khan was elected. In 1258 Monge invaded parts of the Middle east and Southern China. In 1258 he sacked Baghdad the capital of the Islamic Empire. He took Syria also. He attacked lots of Christain regions in the middle east and sacked all of the cities that wouldn’t surrender. A different “General” at that time was attacking the Baltic States and Ukraine. In August of 1259 Mongke died of a disease. This was the peak of the Mongol Empire and after Mongke’s death civil war began in Mongolia. In 1259 the Mongol Empire had reached its territorial peak. The countries it had was: Mongolia, most of Russia, most of China, Korea, parts of Vietnam, parts of Laos, parts of Burma, Bhutan, parts of India, Nepal, Iran, parts of Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, parts of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, parts of Jordan, Syria, parts of Turkey, parts of Ukraine, parts of Romania, Hungary, parts of Bulgaria, and parts of Poland. 

Map of the Mongol Empire around its peak

Russian Empire (peak 1810) 

The Russian Empire started under Peter the Great (1672-1725). Before Peter it was known as the Tsardom of Russia and earlier known as the Kievan Rus. He renamed it to the Russian Empire. He built a new city to be the capital of Russia. That city was Saint Petersburg. During his reign, Peter made the Russian Empire into an Autocracy. After Peter died in 1725, his wife Catherine I became tsarina for a short time. After her, Anna Ionavonna became tsarina for a short time also.

St. Petersburg in 1861

Peter III eventually came to the throne but was couped by his wife, Catherine the Great. She expanded the borders to the Baltic States. She reformed the death sentence too. The old punishment was drawing and quartering but she made a less harsh punishment. Catherine waged war against the Ottomans and conquered the southern lands on the Black Sea. Catherine also took some more Polish land too. In 1796, when Persia attacked Georgia she declared war on them. She was victorious and all of Persia and the Caucasus were under Russian rule. Catherine died in 1796, but had established Russia as a world power. Her successor, Alexander I, started more wars. At this time Sweden had modern day Finland and Sweden. Alexander attacked the Swedes and conquered Finland. He also annexed Bessarabia from Moldova. After all these wars, Russia was in grave debt. In 1812 Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of France, had launched an invasion of Russia. Napoleon was defeated, and he retreated. After he won the war, tsar Alexander I took control of Poland. After the death of Alexander, Nicholas I became tsar. In December of 1825, there was a revolt in which the people tried to make Nicholas’s brother tsar. The revolt was repressed. In 1854-1855 the Crimean war started against Turkey and Britain.

Bunker in the Crimean War

The Russians were severely defeated in this war. In 1855 when Alexander II came to the throne, he abolished serfdom. From 1858-1860 Russia gained lands from the Qing Dynasty. They had gained Outer Manchuria. In 1877 another war against the Turks began. The Russians were very successful and had taken most of their land when they surrendered. They gained lots of territory in modern day Georgia and Azerbaijan. In 1881, Alexander III came to the throne. He was a very Autocratic tsar. This is the peak of the Russian Empire. Russia at this point, although it had lots of land, was very weak and unstable. The countries it had was: Russia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, most of Poland, parts of hungary, Ukraine, parts of Romania, Georgia, parts of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, most of Iran, parts of Afghanistan, parts of Mongolia, and parts of China.

Russian Empire around its peak

Spanish Empire (peak 1810)

In 1492, Spain had reconquered all of Iberia from the Islamics. After they had conquered Iberia, they decided to take North Africa. In 1497 they took Melilla, in 1505 they took Mazalquivir, In 1508 they took Penon de Velez de la Gomera, In 1509 they took Oran, In 1510 they took Algiers, In 1510 they also took Bougie, and Tripoli, and in 1476 they took Santa cruz de la mar Pequena. In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed west, trying to reach Japan. Instead of finding Japan, he found America.

Christopher Columbus finds the new world

In 1502, the first settlement was made in the new world. It was in modern day Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. A colony in Cumana, Venezuela was also set up in 1510. The Spaniards conquered the Aztec and Incan Empires in Central America. Lots of more colonies were set up in Hispaniola (modern day Cuba and Puerto Rico). In 1496, Santo Domingo was colonized by Columbus’s brother. In 1498 the Spanish started to reach the mainland. By 1508, Spain had conquered the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. In 1510 they expanded greatly, taking Nicauragua, Panama, and Costa Rica. In the 1520s, Mexico was colonized.

The Battle of Tenochtitlan

In 1545, Potosi was discovered. A settlement was made there and massive amounts of silver were found. In 1572, the last ruler of the Incan empire was executed. From 1560-1580 Spanish pirates and English pirates engaged in a series of battles trying to steal from each other. The spanish defeated a fleet of British at the Battle of San Juan de la Ulua in Mexico. By the late 1500s most of Central and South America had been conquered. In 1564, the Spanish decided to take a country in Asia. The Philippines were conquered by the Spanish in that year. Luis de Velasco, had also found the “Spice Islands” which is a  modern day Archipelago of islands in Indonesia. In 1571, the Spanish attacked Brunei, which at that point had almost all of the island of Borneo. Brunei was conquered and it was made the capital of the Spanish East Indies.

Spanish colonization of the Philippines

In 1578, another war broke out between the Spanish and the Muslims from Brunei. In April of 1578 the Spanish captured the capital of Kota Batu. In 1598, Philip III came to the throne. Between 1600-1623 the plague hit Europe, and about 20% of the Castilliean  population in Spain died. During the reign of Philip IV (1621-1665) Spain was in economic decline. In 1776, during the American Revolution, Spain helped the colonies mostly because of their hatred with the British. In 1810, Spain had a vast quantity of land in the New world. The countries it had were: Spain, parts of Italy, Philippines, parts of Indonesia, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Equator, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Mexico, Guatemala, about half of the United States, and parts of Canada.

Map of Spanish Empire around its peak