In ancient times Alexander the Great deftly conquered many massive lands and spread Greek culture. Alexander, who was only 20 years old, was king of both Macedonia and Greece. He decided to take over more territory beginning with Persia because he wanted revenge. This military genius advanced to Egypt, defeated it, and built a majestic city, which he named Alexandria. He also made a beautiful library there. “Thank you for constructing this stunning building with its prestigious collection of books!” remarked the people of Alexandria. Alexander shared the ideas of Greek philosophers, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. He had been boldly battling in India for 10 gruesome, gory, and gross years, and then traveled to Babylon. While Alexander was there, he established his capital. This incredible leader was resolutely raucous and ruthless, and his empire and Greek influence were vast, so his nickname was Alexander the Great.
Impressively, Roman government had three peaceful but sometimes chaotic stages that evolved throughout history. First, there were six kings who ruled after Romulus. The Roman Republic was the next phase, in which the two consuls has most of the power. Working with the consuls was the Senate, and it was comprised of prominent citizens. In approximately 50 BC, Julius Caesar became a consul. Because the people loved him like a god and since he was a great general who won lots of battles, he was then elected dictator for life. Jealous for power, the Senate savagely surrounded Julius and ended his life. Eventually, Julius’ great-nephew and adopted son Octavian emerged as emperor and started this third stage of government. His title was Augustus, which means “revered” or “exalted.” Roman government’s three stages – kings, a republic, and emperors – was an important part of history and Western civilization.
Because Ancient Rome prospered greatly in engineering, it was extremely advanced for its time. Amazingly, the Romans who created ingenious aqueducts that brought fresh water into the city, also constructed 50,000 miles of roads. Conquering different towns, the Romans would build a pathway from that town back to their own stunning city. They also had a structure called the Colosseum, named after the colossal statue of Nero. It held 50,000 to 80,000 people. Inside, the citizens, like hungry wolves thirsting for blood, watched animal hunts, gladiator fights, and public executions. The Circus Maximus was an arena and a racetrack that fit 250,000 fans, making it twice the size as the largest stadium today. Countless Roman structures lasted for centuries because they used special long-lasting concrete. Interestingly, parts of the aqueducts, roads, and the Colosseum are still standing in 2019! Engineering feats helped make Rome one of the most magnificent civilizations ever. Since the ancient Romans were so skilled at building, their empire last for remarkably a long time.