Flags of the Confederacy

The Confederacy had many flags. There were national flags, flags for generals, and even flags for Indian tribes that fought with the South. In this post I’ll include the most well-known flags and maybe some flags you didn’t know about.


Battle Flag

Confederate Battle Flag.

The Confederate Battle Flag was the main flag flown in battle during the Civil War for the CSA. It is modernly known simply as “The Confederate Flag” but was never an official flag of the South. The 13 stars on this banner are for the 11 states that seceded and for Kentucky and Missouri, who although didn’t secede, sympathized with the South.

National Flags

1st National Flag (Stars and Bars)

1st National Flag.

The Stars and Bars was the first national flag of the Confederacy and was used from the beginning of the war until 1863 when it was replaced by the 2nd National Flag or “Stainless Banner.” The flag above is also the first version of flag. The seven stars represent the first 7 states to secede from the Union. The flag evolved until it had 13 stars for the 11 states of the Confederacy and 2 stars for Missouri and Kentucky. This flag caused confusion at the First Battle of Manassas and in some of the early battles of the war for looking like the American flag.

2nd National Flag (Stainless Banner)

2nd National Flag.

The Stainless Banner was the official flag of the South from 1863-1865. As well as being known as the Stainless Banner, the 2nd national is also known as the “White Man’s Flag.” and “Jackson’s Flag” because it draped General Stonewall Jackson’s coffin. Being white except for the Battle Flag in the upper left-hand corner, it was replaced in the last year of the war, by the “Blood-Stained Banner”, for looking too much like a flag of surrender.

3rd National Flag (Blood-Stained Banner)

3rd National Flag.

The third and final national flag of the Confederacy, the Blood-Stained Banner, replaced the 2nd national on March 4, 1865. It was meant to look less like a flag of surrender by adding a large red stripe on the right of the banner, but sadly it was adopted too late in the war for many to reach the field before Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.

Bonnie Blue Flag

The Bonnie Blue Flag.

Although never an official national flag, during the Civil War this white star with the blue background was a common and popular symbol for secession, the Confederacy, and the Southern cause.

State Flags

Original South Carolina Secession Flag

Flag of South Carolina after secession.

This flag was used as national flag of The Independent Commonwealth of South Carolina after its secession in 1860, but was changed after Mississippi’s secession in January 1861.

South Carolina State Flag

Flag of South Carolina.

This is the flag of South Carolina after replacing the original and is also the modern state’s flag. The crescent moon is a symbol for liberty and the palmetto tree is the state tree of South Carolina.

Mississippi Flag

Flag of Mississippi.

Before Mississippi seceded from the Union in 1861, they didn’t have a state flag. When Mississippi left the Union a Bonnie Blue Flag was raised over the state capitol. The flag has a magnolia tree because of Mississippi being known as “The Magnolia State” and features a Bonnie Blue Flag in upper left-hand corner.

Original Florida Secession Flag

Original flag of Florida.

This flag was the provisional state flag of Confederate Florida from January to September 1861. In the upper left-hand corner is a Bonnie Blue Flag and 13 stripes, the same number of stripes as the United States flag, which represents the 13 original colonies of the Unites States.

Florida Flag

Flag of Florida.

The state flag of Florida was adopted on September 17, 1861 as the official flag of the state of Florida. On the left there’s a cannon with other Confederate flags sitting on the banks of the Gulf of Mexico and the stripes on the right are in the same pattern on the 1st National Flag.

Alabama Flag

Flag of Alabama.

The official flag of the Confederate state of Alabama, adopted on January 11, 1861. The flag features the Goddess of Liberty holding a sword and flag that says “Alabama” on it and the words “Independent Now and Forever” written above.

Georgia Flag

Flag of Georgia.

Although never official, this flag was the recognized state flag of Georgia from 1861 to 1865. The words Justice, Wisdom, and Moderation are wrapped around three pillars and Constitution is written on the roof above.

Louisiana Flag

Flag of Louisiana.

The flag was adopted as the state flag of Louisiana was adopted on February 11, 1861 after its secession. The 13 stripes represent the original 13 colonies of America and blue, white, and red stripes stand for hope, virtue, and valor.

Texas Flag

State flag of Texas.

This banner was the state flag of Texas before, after, and during the Civil War. This flag and variants similar to this were also flown in battle during the war. It’s also known as the “Lone Star Flag” because of its single star, which represents the State and Republic of Texas (1836-1846).

Texas Secession Flag

Texas Secession Flag.

This flag was a symbol of Texas secession during the debate for Texas joining the Confederacy before the war began.

Virginia Flag

Virginia Flag.

This was the state flag of Virginia during the War of Northern Aggression. Pictured is the Roman Goddess of Virtue trampling on a tyrant king. “Sic Semper Tyrannis” in Latin means “Death Always to Tyrants.”

Arkansas Flag

Arkansas flag.

During the Civil War, Arkansas didn’t have a official state flag or a non-official one. This is the modern state flag of Arkansas, but this flag was used by some Arkansas regiments during the war.

North Carolina Flag

North Carolina Flag.

This was the official flag of North Carolina during the war. Its very similar to the flag of North Carolina today. The top date on the flag is when they seceded from Britain and the bottom is when they seceded from the United States. It was adopted after their secession and served as the first state flag of North Carolina.

Tennessee Flag

Tennessee Flag.

This was the state flag of Tennessee during the War Between the States. The flag has the same stripe pattern as many other Southern flags and in the corner has a seal that says “Agriculture and Commerce.”

Missouri Flag

1st Missouri Cavalry Regiment (Confederate) - Wikipedia
Missouri Flag.

Since it didn’t secede, Missouri didn’t have an official Confederate state flag. This flag was used in battle by Confederate Missouri regiments during the Vicksburg Campaign and elsewhere and is the closest thing to a Confederate Missouri state flag. The flag contains a cross on a blue background trimmed in red.

Kentucky Flag

Kentucky Flag.

Kentucky didn’t secede either but this flag was used by Kentucky regiments and Confederate Kentuckians to symbol rebellion. It features a red cross containing 13 stars, which symbolizes the 13 southern states, in a field of blue.

Maryland Flag

List of Maryland Confederate Civil War units - Wikipedia
Maryland Flag.

Although Maryland wasn’t one of the 13 southern states, it was still important to the Confederate cause. Known as the “Crossland Banner” this flag was flown by Confederate Marylanders. This banner makes up half of the modern Maryland flag. The other half is a yellow and black symbol that was flown by Marylanders were fought with the Union.

Non-Official State Flags of the Confederacy

Although these flags were not official state flags, they are modernly displayed as Confederate symbols for much of the South. Mostly flags like these include one part of a state’s flag, thrown together with the Battle Flag.

South Carolina

A modern flag for Confederate South Carolina.

Including the palmetto, crescent moon, and Battle Flag, this is a newly created South Carolinian Confederate flag.


The former state flag of Mississippi.

Mississippi had used this banner as its state flag, although in different color shades, since 1894 until recently being changed earlier this year for being offensive because it contained a Battle Flag.


A Confederate flag similar to the modern state flag of Florida.

Instead of having a Battle Flag in the backdrop of the state seal, the modern flag of Florida just features a red cross with a white background, which symbolizes the Spanish Empire, who controlled most of Florida until shortly after the Revolutionary War.


A modern Alabama Confederate flag having a Battle Flag and the seal of Alabama.

Like other flags in this category, this flag has a Battle Flag on the right and Alabama’s state seal on the left.


A Georgia flag from 1956 until 2001.

Georgia and Mississippi are the only two US states that used to have a Battle Flag on their state flag. This was actually the official state flag of Georgia from 1956 until 2001 and features the seal of Georgia on the left and a Battle Flag on the right.


A Louisiana Confederate flag.

On the left, this flag has the pelican from the modern Louisiana state flag, except with a red background instead of blue, and on the right is the battle flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi.


A Texas flag.

On the left of this flag is the Texas Lone Star, which can also be interpreted as the star on the Bonnie Blue Flag, and on the right is the very familiar Battle Flag.


A Virginia flag.

The seal on the left of this flag is the same one featured on the modern Virginia flag and is similar to the one on the Confederate Virginia state flag.


Arkansas Flag.

This flag has the modern symbol of the state of Arkansas is middle and the Battle Flag in the background.

North Carolina

A North Carolina flag.

This flag features the Battle Flag and the dates of NC secession from Britain and when they allied themselves with the other 12 American colonies.


A Tennessee flag.

This flag has the symbol on Tennessee’s modern flag in the middle with a Battle Flag.

Flags of the Five Civilized Indian Tribes and the Confederate Irish

From 1861 to 1865 the the Southern states fought alongside Five Civilized Tribes of Indians these being, the Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminiole, Creek, and Chickasaw. Irish immigrants fleeing the Irish Potato Famine also fought alongside Southerners during the war.


Flag of Cherokee Confederates.

Flag of Confederate Cherokee Indians during the Civil War. This flag was the battle flag of Cherokee General Stand Watie, who fought in the Western Theater of the war, but was also used by other Cherokees. The five red stars represent the five tribes and the 11 stars represent the 11 Confederate states.


Flag of the Choctaw tribe.

The Choctaw were the first Indian tribe to adopt an official flag. This was their flag during the Civil War and the center symbol of this flag is still their seal today.


Seminole flag.

A flag for the Seminole tribe that was was used during the war.


Creek flag.

Very similar to the flag above, this was the flag of the Creek or Muscogee Indian tribe from Oklahoma.


The Chickasaw didn’t have their own flag during the 1860s so many of them fought under the Choctaw flag.

Confederate Irish

Flag of Irish Confederates.

This was the main flag for Irish Confederates. Other flags contained the harp and the green background, but had something unique around the harp.

Flags of Armies and Generals

Lee’s Headquarters

Flag of Lee’s Headquarters.

This flag flew over General Robert E. Lee’s camps and headquarters. It was designed by his wife and stars represent the Arch of the Covenant.

Flag of General John Bell Hood

Hood's Texas Brigade "SEVEN PINES" flag 1st Texas Regiment ...
Flag of General Hood.

This flag was used by General Hood of the Texas Brigade. Seven Pines and Gaines Farm were part of the Seven Days Battles where Hood’s men fought in Northern Virginia. Later on two more battles were added onto the flag, Eltham’s Landing and Malvern Hill.

Flag of General William J. Hardee

Flag of General Hardee.

This was the flag of General Hardee during his time with the Confederacy. Hardee had served in US Army during the Second Seminole War and the Mexican-American War. He commanded the First Corps of the Army of Tennessee and served in Western Theater and Carolinas Campaign.

Flag of General Leonidas Polk

Flag of General Polk.

This was the battle flag of North Carolinian Confederate General Leonidas Polk. Polk was the Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana, the founder of the Protestant Church of the Confederate States of America, and the Second Cousin of American President James K. Polk. This flag pattern is used in other flags and is known as the Polk Flag Pattern. The 11 stars are for the 11 states of the Confederacy. Polk would later be killed in action on June 14, 1864.

Flag of General Nathan Bedford Forrest

Flag of General Forrest.

This flag was flown by Forrest’s Calvary Corps during the Civil War. You may notice that there’s a star missing in the center of the flag and it’s still debated which state wasn’t included today.

Flag of General Earl Van Dorn

Flag of General Van Dorn.

Earl Van Dorn was a Confederate general from Mississippi and commanded the Trans-Mississippi District. He fought with distinction in the Mexican War and served in Arkansas and Tennessee during the Civil War. He lost to smaller Union forces on numerous occasions and was about to overcome his setbacks when he was killed by a doctor in May 1863 who claimed that Van Dorn had participated in an affair with his wife. The 13 stars on the flag stand for the 13 Southern states and the crescent moon is a symbol for liberty.

Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia

Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia.

The battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia was used by the Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, J. E. Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard, J. E. B. Stuart, and Stonewall Jackson. Yellow, orange, and white bunting was also used during the years of the war.

Flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi

Flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi.

This flag served as the flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi during the Civil War. The flag has the opposite colors of the normal Battle Flag having a red cross and a blue background. The Trans-Mississippi Theater of the Civil War consisted of three Confederate states Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas.

Flag of the Army of Kentucky

Flag of the Army of Kentucky.

The Army of Kentucky was one of the Confederate armies during the Confederate Heartland Offensive in which the Confederates tried to liberate Kentucky from Union occupation. After the offensive failed, the army was incorporated into the Army of Tennessee.

Flag of the Army of New Mexico

Flag of the Army of New Mexico.

The Army of New Mexico, also known as the Sibley Brigade because of the commanding general, Henry Hopkins Sibley, was a Confederate army that participated in the New Mexico Campaign in which the Confederates attempted to take the northern part of the New Mexico Territory. The flag is a red variant of the Bonnie Blue Flag.

Flag of the Army of Tennessee

Flag of the Army of Tennessee.

This flag is similar to the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia, but instead of being square it’s rectangular. This army was the largest Confederate army in the Western Theater of the war and was commanded by Braxton Bragg, William Hardee, John Bell Hood, and Leonidas Polk.

First Naval Jack

First Naval Jack.

A naval jack is a flag that flies at the bow or front of a ship but only when the ship is in port, leaving, or entering. After the ship set sail the flag was removed so the crew could see better. This was the jack from 1861 to 1863. The seven stars would later be updated to 11 in late 1861.

Second Naval Jack

Second Naval Jack.

The second naval jack of the Confederate States was flown from 1863 to 1865 and is the exact same as the flag of the Army of Tennessee, a rectangular Battle Flag.

First Ensign

First Ensign.

Ensigns are flags flown at the stern of a ship and are used to identify a ship nationally. This was the first ensign of Southern ships and is the same as the 1st National Flag being flown from 1861 to 1863.

Second Ensign

Second Ensign.

This flag served as the second ensign of the Confederacy from 1863 to 1865 and is the same as the 2nd National Flag.

The Christmas Truce of 1914

A German soldier giving a British soldier a light to his cigarette during the truce.

Just five months into WWI in December 1914, unofficial truces and ceasefires were called by soldiers in the Western and Eastern fronts of the Great War. 

The first of these Christmas Truces was made a week before Christmas, during the stalemates of the First Battle of Ypres and Race to Sea, French and British soldiers met German men in no man’s land on the Western Front of WWI. During this first truce, soldiers sang carols, exchanged gifts, talked, and even played soccer with each other.

On the Eastern Front, Austro-Hungarian and Russian soldiers had a similar ceasefire. In some of these truces, the two sides would go recover bodies, have funerals for dead men, and exchange prisoners with each other.

During 1915, there were some short truces, not just during Christmas but also during the rest of the year. Sadly after the truces of 1914, unofficial ceasefires (not called by officials) were looked down upon by higher authorities and by 1916 you could be court-martialed for doing so.

Some commanders directly disobeyed orders from generals that threatened to punish them with death if they called a ceasefire with the enemy. This was because higher commanders didn’t want the enemy to be seen as human rather as a horrible evil that needed to be destroyed at all costs.

A monument to commemorate the Christmas Truce at Ypres Battlefield in France, showing a British and German soldier shaking hands over a soccer ball.

The Christmas Truce of 1914 was one of the only times in WWI when soldiers from seperate sides came together on neutral ground to fraternize, trade, and play games.          

History of the American Civil War Part 2: 1862

Co-written by Zeke and Houston

Important or Major Battles in 1862 

1st National Flag of the Confederacy (1861-1863) and nicknamed the “Stars and Bars.”

During 1862 on the Western Front of the war, Tennessee was almost 100% occupied by Union forces. Further south, Louisiana was invaded by sea and New Orleans was captured and Mississippi was invaded by Union troops along the Mississippi River

Five different civilized Indian tribes allied themselves with the Confederate States. These tribes were: the Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw and Cherokee fighting with the nickname “Braves” under General Stand Watie in Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri. These tribes fought in numerous battles in the states they were from.

Rebels in Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri were, for the most part, exterminated. In May, the Confederacy gained the Southern half of Arizona and New Mexico, after the people there voted to join the Confederacy, then tried to take the rest of the New Mexico territory by invasion, but by July Union forces had taken it back and invaded parts of West Texas.

Map of the Confederate States and states with Confederate supporters, with Confederate Arizona and New Mexico highlighted.

In August and September, a Confederate campaign was launched into Kentucky by General Braxton Bragg. The goal of the campaign was to draw a neutral Kentucky out of Union control and have one more Confederate state. Bragg launched the invasion directly up the middle of the state, splitting it in half, and even raiding Cincinnati before being pushed back into Eastern Tennessee

During 1862, the entire North Carolina coast was captured and occupied by the Federals.    

Political Situation

In 1862, Lincoln’s reason for war was still for the preservation of the Union and not for the ending of slavery. But that would soon change in 1863 with his famous Emancipation Proclamation, while although not actually freeing any slaves in the south, made the war about slavery.

Battle of Fort Donelson

The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought from February 11-16, 1862 in Stewart County, Tennessee on the banks of the Tennessee River. It was a prominent Union victory with the Federals taking 2,691 casualties and the Confederates having about 2,000. The Union under General Ulysses S. Grant besieged the fort for five days until the Confederates surrendered, capturing 12,963 men.

Ulysses S. Grant.

General Grant did extremely well during the battle and would later be promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Union army. The Battle of Fort Donelson was a major loss for the Confederates and a major victory for the Union.

Battle of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern)

The Battle of Pea Ridge was a decisive Battle in Benton County, Arkansas and took place from March 7-8, 1862. An army of about 10,500 men led by Confederate General Sterling Price fought at Pea Ridge against Union General Franz Sigel. It was another Union victory in Western Theatre with Union casualties being 203 killed, 980 wounded and 201 missing, while the Confederates had about 2,000 casualties.

Fighting at Pea Ridge

Pea Ridge was the costliest civil war battle in Arkansas. Cherokee Indians fought alongside Confederates under command of Cherokee General Stand Watie. Texas Confederate General Benjamin McCulloch was also killed at the battle. 

Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing) 

The Battle of Shiloh was a major battle fought in Hardin County, Tennessee from April 6-7, 1862 and one of the bloodiest battles of the entire war. A group of 63,000 men led by Union General Ulysses S. Grant fought against an army of 40,335 led by Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard. The armies battled for two days in the Southwestern Tennessee wilderness. The Union came out on top having 13,047 casualties with the Confederate 10,699. 

Confederate and Union troops fighting at Shiloh.

Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnson was killed during the battle and the Confederates were forced to retreat. The Battle of Shiloh was part of the Shiloh Campaign, in which the Union tried to take control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in Western Tennessee, and with the help of Union General Grant, they would succeed. 

Seven days Battles 

The Seven days Battles were a series of battles in Henrico County, Virginia: The Battle of Seven pines, Malvern Hill, Gaines Farm, Savage’s Station, Glendale, Beaver Dam Creek, and Garnett’s Farm of which the Confederates won all of them. They were fought from June 25-July 1, 1862. It was part of the Peninsula Campaign, which was Union General George McCllelan’s failed attempt at invading Virginia and taking Richmond by the Virginia Peninsula. McCllelan’s army of 114,000 men made it all the way to the outskirts of Richmond, but were pushed back by a Confederate force of 92,000.

Flag of General John Bell Hood’s Texas Brigade with the names of four battles, all of them except Eltham’s Landing being part of the Seven days Battles.

General Robert E. Lee of the Army of Northern Virginia, along with other Generals, such as Texas General John Bell Hood, pushed back the Federals in these Seven battles, the worst being the Battle of Seven Pines. The Seven days Battles were probably the highest point in Confederate moral and strength of the whole war. 

Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862 (Jackson’s Valley Campaign)

The Shenandoah Valley Campaign took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from March-June, 1862. There were six different battles in the campaign, The Battle of Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, First Winchester, Cross Keys, and Port Republic. It was nicknamed Jackson’s Valley Campaign because Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson was the main commander of the campaign.

Map of the 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign.

Even though the whole campaign there were only 7,984 casualties in all (5,307 Union, 2,677 Confederate) it was a very important campaign. The Confederates were the victor and because he used his vast military knowledge Stonewall Jackson was able to win all but one battle (The Battle of Front Royal). Overall, it was a major victory for the CSA because they gained control of the Shenandoah River and the Shenandoah Valley.

Capture of New Orleans

The Louisiana state flag is removed from the city hall.

Although there was no fighting (except for a minor clash between gunboats) the Capture of New Orleans was very important, because the Union took the key Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana, which gave them entrance to the Deep South. Union General Ben Butler commanded the fleet of union gunboats to take the city, from April 25-May 1, 1862. Not much fighting occurred but the Union did gain control of a key Southern city. 

Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) 

The Second Battle of Manassas was fought from August 29-30, 1862 in Manassas, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee fought against Union armies commanded by General John Pope. It was an astounding victory for the Confederacy, and a horrible defeat for the Union. Even while Confederates were outnumbered, by 20,000 troops, they only took 7,298 casualties, while the Union had a crushing 14,462 casualties. 

A painting depicting Confederate soldiers throwing stones down at the Union below.

Robert E. Lee was also accompanied by General Stonewall Jackson, General J.E.B. Stuart, main commander of the Confederate Cavalry, and General James Longstreet, maybe the four best Confederate Generals. 

Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) 

The Battle of Antietam was a major battle fought on September 17, 1862 in Sharpsburg, Maryland. It was tactically inconclusive, but it was a strategic Union victory.

Up until this point, Lee’s army had only defended against the Union, never going on the attack, but finally Lee decided to take the fight to the North. Lee hoped that if he could cut off Washington D.C. from the rest of the North they would surrender. 

Confederate and Union bodies at what’s known as “Bloody Lane.”

It only lasted one day, but the day of the engagment, September 17, 1862 holds the title as the bloodiest single day in American history. The Union had about 12,410, versus the Confederate 10,316 casualties, making that around 23,000. The Battle of Antietam was part of the Maryland Campaign

Confederate Armies only had 38,000 men and the Union had 87,000, more than twice the Confederate size. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia fought alongside the Texas Brigade at the battle.  

Second battle of Corinth 

The Second Battle of Corinth took place from October 3-4, 1862 in the town of Corinth, Mississippi. An army of 23,000 Union troops commanded by General William Rosecrans fought outside the town of Corinth against the Confederate army of 22,000 men commanded by General Earl Van Dorn. The Union won the battle, having 2,520 casualties against the Confederate 4,233 casualties. 

Map of the Corinth Campaign of 1862

The Second Battle of Corinth was one of the most costly battles in the Western Theatre of the war. Union General Grant was also commanding troops in the Corinth Campaign, but he wasn’t actually at the battle. 

Battle of Perryville (Chaplin Hills) 

The Battle of Perryville occurred on October 8, 1862 near Perryville, Kentucky. Perryville was the bloodiest battle in Kentucky, with the Union having 4,241 casualties and Confederate casualties being 3,396. It was part of the Kentucky Campaign or the Confederate Heartland Offensive, in which the Confederates under General Braxton Bragg attempted to liberate Kentucky and possibly cut the Union in half by going up through Kentucky and invading Indiana and Ohio

Flag of Confederate Kentucky

The Confederates had already been pushed back out of Northern Kentucky earlier that year, and were defeated at Perryville, which is in Central Kentucky. The commanding Union general was General Don Carlos Bell. Bragg was accompanied by Generals Leonidas Polk and William J. Hardee.

Battle of Fredericksburg

The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought from December 11-15, 1862. It was a crucial battle and astounding victory for the Confederates. The Union had 12,653 casualties and the Confederates only had 5,377. General Ambrose E. Burnside, the commanding Union General, ordered that they try to break the Confederate line commanded by General Stonewall Jackson at Marye’s Heights. The Union sent line after line of men that were gunned down by the Confederate artillery and guns, and Burnside was forced to retreat.

During the Union charge at the Confederate line, a Confederate soldier gives water to the Union wounded.

It was part of the Fredericksburg Campaign, that ended at Fredericksburg in which the Union tried to invade Richmond by the north.