Modern Countries Part 6

Montenegro (Europe)

Montenegro flag

Capital: Podgorica 

Population: 622,359

Size: 5,333 sq. miles

Currency: Euro

Tallest point: Bobotov Kuk 8,728 feet tall

Main religion: Christain 75.9%

Main languages: Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Albanian

About: On June 3, 2006, Montenegro gained independence from Serbia. 

Aman Sveti Stefan hotel, Montenegro

Morocco (Africa)

Morocco flag

Capital: Rabat

Population: 37.1 Million

Size: 274,460 sq. miles

Currency: Moroccan Dirham

Tallest point: Toubkal 13,671 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 99%

Main languages: Arabic, Berber, Hassaniya, English, and Spanish

About: On April 7, 1956, Morocco became independent from France. It was a protectorate of France since 1912. 

Hassan tower in Rabat, Morocco

Mozambique (Africa)

Mozambique flag

Capital: Maputo

Population: 30 Million

Size: 309,500 sq. miles

Currency: Mozambican Metical 

Tallest point: Monte Binga 8,004 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 56.1%

Main languages: Portuguese, Swahili, Mwana, Chewa, and Tsonga

About: On March 1, 1498 Mozambique was colonized by Portugal. It was known as Portuguese East Africa. On June 25, 1975, Mozambique gained independence from Portugal.

Train station in Maputo, Mozambique

Myanmar (AKA Burma) (Asia)

Myanmar flag

Capital: Naypyidaw 

Population: 53.5 Million

Size: 261,228 sq. miles

Currency: Kyat

Tallest point: Hkakabo Razi 19,295 feet tall

Main religion: Buddhism 87.9%

Main language: Burmese, Kachin, Kayah, Karen, and Chin

About: On January 4, 1948, Myanmar gained independence from Britain. It was formerly part of British Burma.

Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar.

Namibia (Africa)

Namibia flag

Capital: Windhoek

Population: 2.7 Million

Size: 318,772 sq. miles

Currency: Namibian Dollar and South African Rand

Tallest point: Brandberg Mountain 8,442 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 87.9%

Main languages: English, Afrikaans, German, Otijherero, and Khoekhoegowab

About: On February 9, 1990, Namibia gained independence from South Africa.

Christuskirche in Windhoek, Namibia

Nauru (Australia and the Pacific)

Nauru flag

Capital: Yaren

Population: 10,670

Size: 8 sq. miles

Currency: Australian Dollar

Tallest point: Unnamed location 213 feet tall

Main religion: ???

Main languages: Nauruan and English

About: On January 31, 1968, Nauru gained independence from Britain. 

Japanese ww2 guns in Yaren, Nauru

Nepal (Asia)

Nepal flag

Capital: Kathmandu

Population: 28 Million

Size: 56,956 sq. miles

Currency: Nepalese Rupee

Tallest point: Mount Everest 29,031 feet tall (Tallest mountain in the world)

Main religion: Hinduism 81.3%

Main languages: Nepali, Limbu, Maithili, Nepalbhasa, and Angika

About: Nepal became a country in 1768. It was then known as the Kingdom of Nepal.

Kathmandu, Nepal

Netherlands (Europe)

Netherlands flag

Capital: Amsterdam

Population: 17.4 Million

Size: 16,164 sq. miles

Currency: Euro and United States Dollar

Tallest point: Vaalserberg 1,058 feet tall

Main religion: No religion 50.1%

Main languages: Dutch, English, Papiamentu, West Frisian, and Dutch Low Saxon

About: In 1940, the Netherlands were invaded by Nazi Germany. On May 5, 1945, the Netherlands were liberated by American, British, and Canadian troops. 

Windmill in Alkmaar, Netherlands

New Zealand (Australia and the Pacific)

New Zealand flag

Capital: Wellington 

Population: 5.1 Million

Size: 103,483 sq. miles

Currency: New Zealand Dollar

Tallest point: Mount Cook (Aoraki) 12,218 feet tall

Main religion: No religion 48.5%

Main languages: English and Maori

About: On September 26, 1907, the Dominion of New Zealand was declared. They gained independence from Britain on that day. 

Kiwi monument in New Zealand

Nicaragua (North America)

Nicaragua flag

Capital: Managua

Population: 6.4 Million

Size: 50,338 sq. miles

Currency: Cordoba

Tallest point: Cerro Mogoton 6,500 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 84.4%

Main languages: Spanish, English, Miskito, Rama, and Sumo

About: On May 31, 1838, Nicaragua became independent from the Federal Republic of Central America. 

Statue of Ruben Dario in Managua, Nicaragua

Niger (Africa)

Niger flag

Capital: Niamey

Population: 22.4 Million

Size: 489,000 sq. miles

Currency: CFA Franc

 Tallest point: Mont Idoukal-n-Taghes 6,634 feet tall

Main religion: Islam 99%

Main languages: French, Arabic, Buduma, Fulfulde, and Gourmanchema

About: On August 3, 1960, Niger became independent from France. 

Grand mosque in Niamey, Niger

Nigeria (Africa)

Nigeria flag

Capital: Abuja

Population: 206.6 Million 

Size: 356,669 sq. miles

Currency: Naira

Tallest point: Chappal Waddi (Gangirwal) 7,936 feet tall

Main religion: Islam 50%

Main languages: English, Yoruba, Hausa, and Igbo

About: On October 1, 1960, Nigeria became independent from the British Empire. 

Zuma rock near Abuja, Nigeria

Norway (Europe)

Norway flag

Capital: Oslo

Population: 5.3 Million 

Size: 148,729 sq. miles

Currency: Norwegian Krone

Tallest point: Galdhopiggen 8,100 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 75.6%

Main languages: Norwegian, Sami, and Kven

About: In 1940, Norway was invaded by Nazi Germany. After WW2 in 1945, it was independent again. 

Bergenhus fortress in Bergen, Norway

Oman (Asia)

Oman flag

Capital: Muscat

Population: 4.8 Million 

Size: 119,500 sq. miles

Currency: Rial

Tallest point: Jebel Akhdar 9,780 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 100%

Main languages: Arabic

About: Oman was established in 130 AD. It was the Azd tribe who controlled it. It was part of the Ottoman Empire.

Riyam monument in Muscat, Oman

Pakistan (Asia)

Pakistan flag

Capital: Islamabad

Population: 212.2 Million

Size: 340,509 sq. miles

Currency: Pakistani Rupee

Tallest point: K2 28,251 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 96.2%

Main languages: English, Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, and Sindhi 

About: On August 14, 1947, Pakistan became independent from the British Empire. It was formerly part of British India. It was divided into Pakistan, for Muslims, and India, for Hindus. 

Lahore fort in Lahore, Pakistan

Palau (Australia and the Pacific)

Palau flag

Capital: Ngerulmud 

Population: 17,907 

Size: 177 sq. miles

Currency: United States Dollar

Tallest point : Ngerchelchuus 794 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 89.7%

Main languages: English, Palauan, and Japanese 

About: During WW2 Palau was invaded by the United States. On July 18, 1947, it became independent from the United States. 

Arch landmark in Palau

Palestine (AKA West Bank) (Asia)

Palestine flag

Capital: Jerusalem (Disputed) 

Population: 5.1 Million 

Size: 2,320 sq. miles

Currency: Egyptian Pound, Israeli Shekel, and Jordanian Dinar

Tallest point: Mount Hermon 9,232 feet tall

Main religion: Islam ???%

Main languages: Arabic

About: On November 15, 1988, Palestine became independent from Israel. Its land is still disputed with Israel, and it is not part of the United Nations. 

Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

Panama (North America)

Panama flag

Capital: Panama City

Population: 4.1 Million 

Size: 29,119 sq. miles

Currency: Balboa and United States Dollar

Tallest point: Baru Volcano 11,401 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 91.5%

Main languages: Spanish

About: On November 3, 1903, Panama became independent from Colombia. 

Panama La Vieja in Panama City, Panama

Papua New Guinea (Australia and the Pacific)

Papua New Guinea flag

Capital: Port Moresby 

Population: 8.9 Million

Size: 178,700 sq. miles

Currency: Papua New Guinean Kina 

Tallest point: Mount Wilhelm 14,793 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 95.5% 

Main languages: English, Hiri Motu, Tok Pisin, German, and Madang 

About: On September 16, 1975, Papua New Guinea became independent from Australia. 

Volcano in Papua New Guinea

Paraguay (South America)

Paraguay flag

Capital: Asuncion 

Population: 7.2 Million 

Size: 157,050 sq. miles

Currency: Guarani 

Tallest point: Cerro Pero 2,297 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 96.1%

Main languages: Spanish, Guarani 

About: On May 14, 1811, Paraguay became independent from the Spanish Empire. 

Iguazu falls in Paraguay

Peru (South America)

Peru flag

Capital: Lima

Population: 32.8 Million 

Size: 496,225 sq. miles

Currency: Sol 

Tallest point: Huascaran 22,132 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 94.5%

Main languages: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara

About: On July 28, 1821, Peru became independent from the Spanish Empire. 

Machu Picchu in Cuzco, Peru

Philippines (Asia)

Philippines flag

Capital: Manila 

Population: 106.6 Million 

Size: 120,000 sq. miles

Currency: Peso

Tallest point: Mount Apo 9,692 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 92%

Main languages: Filipino, English, Spanish, Arabic, and Aklanon 

About: After the Spanish-American war, the Philippines were occupied by the United States. From 1942-1945, the Philippines were occupied by the Japanese Empire. Finally, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines became independent from the United States of America. 

The Chocolate hills, Philippines

Poland (Europe)

Poland flag (Same as Monaco flag)

Capital: Warsaw

Population: 38.3 Million 

Size: 120,773 sq. miles

Currency: Polish Zloty

Tallest point: Rysy 8,212 feet tall

Main religion: Christain 94.1%

Main languages: Polish

About: In 1989, when the Berlin wall fell, Poland became independent from the Soviet Union. 

Gdansk, Poland

Flags of the Confederacy

The Confederacy had many flags. There were national flags, flags for generals, and even flags for Indian tribes that fought with the South. In this post I’ll include the most well-known flags and maybe some flags you didn’t know about.


Battle Flag

Confederate Battle Flag.

The Confederate Battle Flag was the main flag flown in battle during the Civil War for the CSA. It is modernly known simply as “The Confederate Flag” but was never an official flag of the South. The 13 stars on this banner are for the 11 states that seceded and for Kentucky and Missouri, who although didn’t secede, sympathized with the South.

National Flags

1st National Flag (Stars and Bars)

1st National Flag.

The Stars and Bars was the first national flag of the Confederacy and was used from the beginning of the war until 1863 when it was replaced by the 2nd National Flag or “Stainless Banner.” The flag above is also the first version of flag. The seven stars represent the first 7 states to secede from the Union. The flag evolved until it had 13 stars for the 11 states of the Confederacy and 2 stars for Missouri and Kentucky. This flag caused confusion at the First Battle of Manassas and in some of the early battles of the war for looking like the American flag.

2nd National Flag (Stainless Banner)

2nd National Flag.

The Stainless Banner was the official flag of the South from 1863-1865. As well as being known as the Stainless Banner, the 2nd national is also known as the “White Man’s Flag.” and “Jackson’s Flag” because it draped General Stonewall Jackson’s coffin. Being white except for the Battle Flag in the upper left-hand corner, it was replaced in the last year of the war, by the “Blood-Stained Banner”, for looking too much like a flag of surrender.

3rd National Flag (Blood-Stained Banner)

3rd National Flag.

The third and final national flag of the Confederacy, the Blood-Stained Banner, replaced the 2nd national on March 4, 1865. It was meant to look less like a flag of surrender by adding a large red stripe on the right of the banner, but sadly it was adopted too late in the war for many to reach the field before Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.

Bonnie Blue Flag

The Bonnie Blue Flag.

Although never an official national flag, during the Civil War this white star with the blue background was a common and popular symbol for secession, the Confederacy, and the Southern cause.

State Flags

Original South Carolina Secession Flag

Flag of South Carolina after secession.

This flag was used as national flag of The Independent Commonwealth of South Carolina after its secession in 1860, but was changed after Mississippi’s secession in January 1861.

South Carolina State Flag

Flag of South Carolina.

This is the flag of South Carolina after replacing the original and is also the modern state’s flag. The crescent moon is a symbol for liberty and the palmetto tree is the state tree of South Carolina.

Mississippi Flag

Flag of Mississippi.

Before Mississippi seceded from the Union in 1861, they didn’t have a state flag. When Mississippi left the Union a Bonnie Blue Flag was raised over the state capitol. The flag has a magnolia tree because of Mississippi being known as “The Magnolia State” and features a Bonnie Blue Flag in upper left-hand corner.

Original Florida Secession Flag

Original flag of Florida.

This flag was the provisional state flag of Confederate Florida from January to September 1861. In the upper left-hand corner is a Bonnie Blue Flag and 13 stripes, the same number of stripes as the United States flag, which represents the 13 original colonies of the Unites States.

Florida Flag

Flag of Florida.

The state flag of Florida was adopted on September 17, 1861 as the official flag of the state of Florida. On the left there’s a cannon with other Confederate flags sitting on the banks of the Gulf of Mexico and the stripes on the right are in the same pattern on the 1st National Flag.

Alabama Flag

Flag of Alabama.

The official flag of the Confederate state of Alabama, adopted on January 11, 1861. The flag features the Goddess of Liberty holding a sword and flag that says “Alabama” on it and the words “Independent Now and Forever” written above.

Georgia Flag

Flag of Georgia.

Although never official, this flag was the recognized state flag of Georgia from 1861 to 1865. The words Justice, Wisdom, and Moderation are wrapped around three pillars and Constitution is written on the roof above.

Louisiana Flag

Flag of Louisiana.

The flag was adopted as the state flag of Louisiana was adopted on February 11, 1861 after its secession. The 13 stripes represent the original 13 colonies of America and blue, white, and red stripes stand for hope, virtue, and valor.

Texas Flag

State flag of Texas.

This banner was the state flag of Texas before, after, and during the Civil War. This flag and variants similar to this were also flown in battle during the war. It’s also known as the “Lone Star Flag” because of its single star, which represents the State and Republic of Texas (1836-1846).

Texas Secession Flag

Texas Secession Flag.

This flag was a symbol of Texas secession during the debate for Texas joining the Confederacy before the war began.

Virginia Flag

Virginia Flag.

This was the state flag of Virginia during the War of Northern Aggression. Pictured is the Roman Goddess of Virtue trampling on a tyrant king. “Sic Semper Tyrannis” in Latin means “Death Always to Tyrants.”

Arkansas Flag

Arkansas flag.

During the Civil War, Arkansas didn’t have a official state flag or a non-official one. This is the modern state flag of Arkansas, but this flag was used by some Arkansas regiments during the war.

North Carolina Flag

North Carolina Flag.

This was the official flag of North Carolina during the war. Its very similar to the flag of North Carolina today. The top date on the flag is when they seceded from Britain and the bottom is when they seceded from the United States. It was adopted after their secession and served as the first state flag of North Carolina.

Tennessee Flag

Tennessee Flag.

This was the state flag of Tennessee during the War Between the States. The flag has the same stripe pattern as many other Southern flags and in the corner has a seal that says “Agriculture and Commerce.”

Missouri Flag

1st Missouri Cavalry Regiment (Confederate) - Wikipedia
Missouri Flag.

Since it didn’t secede, Missouri didn’t have an official Confederate state flag. This flag was used in battle by Confederate Missouri regiments during the Vicksburg Campaign and elsewhere and is the closest thing to a Confederate Missouri state flag. The flag contains a cross on a blue background trimmed in red.

Kentucky Flag

Kentucky Flag.

Kentucky didn’t secede either but this flag was used by Kentucky regiments and Confederate Kentuckians to symbol rebellion. It features a red cross containing 13 stars, which symbolizes the 13 southern states, in a field of blue.

Maryland Flag

List of Maryland Confederate Civil War units - Wikipedia
Maryland Flag.

Although Maryland wasn’t one of the 13 southern states, it was still important to the Confederate cause. Known as the “Crossland Banner” this flag was flown by Confederate Marylanders. This banner makes up half of the modern Maryland flag. The other half is a yellow and black symbol that was flown by Marylanders were fought with the Union.

Non-Official State Flags of the Confederacy

Although these flags were not official state flags, they are modernly displayed as Confederate symbols for much of the South. Mostly flags like these include one part of a state’s flag, thrown together with the Battle Flag.

South Carolina

A modern flag for Confederate South Carolina.

Including the palmetto, crescent moon, and Battle Flag, this is a newly created South Carolinian Confederate flag.


The former state flag of Mississippi.

Mississippi had used this banner as its state flag, although in different color shades, since 1894 until recently being changed earlier this year for being offensive because it contained a Battle Flag.


A Confederate flag similar to the modern state flag of Florida.

Instead of having a Battle Flag in the backdrop of the state seal, the modern flag of Florida just features a red cross with a white background, which symbolizes the Spanish Empire, who controlled most of Florida until shortly after the Revolutionary War.


A modern Alabama Confederate flag having a Battle Flag and the seal of Alabama.

Like other flags in this category, this flag has a Battle Flag on the right and Alabama’s state seal on the left.


A Georgia flag from 1956 until 2001.

Georgia and Mississippi are the only two US states that used to have a Battle Flag on their state flag. This was actually the official state flag of Georgia from 1956 until 2001 and features the seal of Georgia on the left and a Battle Flag on the right.


A Louisiana Confederate flag.

On the left, this flag has the pelican from the modern Louisiana state flag, except with a red background instead of blue, and on the right is the battle flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi.


A Texas flag.

On the left of this flag is the Texas Lone Star, which can also be interpreted as the star on the Bonnie Blue Flag, and on the right is the very familiar Battle Flag.


A Virginia flag.

The seal on the left of this flag is the same one featured on the modern Virginia flag and is similar to the one on the Confederate Virginia state flag.


Arkansas Flag.

This flag has the modern symbol of the state of Arkansas is middle and the Battle Flag in the background.

North Carolina

A North Carolina flag.

This flag features the Battle Flag and the dates of NC secession from Britain and when they allied themselves with the other 12 American colonies.


A Tennessee flag.

This flag has the symbol on Tennessee’s modern flag in the middle with a Battle Flag.

Flags of the Five Civilized Indian Tribes and the Confederate Irish

From 1861 to 1865 the the Southern states fought alongside Five Civilized Tribes of Indians these being, the Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminiole, Creek, and Chickasaw. Irish immigrants fleeing the Irish Potato Famine also fought alongside Southerners during the war.


Flag of Cherokee Confederates.

Flag of Confederate Cherokee Indians during the Civil War. This flag was the battle flag of Cherokee General Stand Watie, who fought in the Western Theater of the war, but was also used by other Cherokees. The five red stars represent the five tribes and the 11 stars represent the 11 Confederate states.


Flag of the Choctaw tribe.

The Choctaw were the first Indian tribe to adopt an official flag. This was their flag during the Civil War and the center symbol of this flag is still their seal today.


Seminole flag.

A flag for the Seminole tribe that was was used during the war.


Creek flag.

Very similar to the flag above, this was the flag of the Creek or Muscogee Indian tribe from Oklahoma.


The Chickasaw didn’t have their own flag during the 1860s so many of them fought under the Choctaw flag.

Confederate Irish

Flag of Irish Confederates.

This was the main flag for Irish Confederates. Other flags contained the harp and the green background, but had something unique around the harp.

Flags of Armies and Generals

Lee’s Headquarters

Flag of Lee’s Headquarters.

This flag flew over General Robert E. Lee’s camps and headquarters. It was designed by his wife and stars represent the Arch of the Covenant.

Flag of General John Bell Hood

Hood's Texas Brigade "SEVEN PINES" flag 1st Texas Regiment ...
Flag of General Hood.

This flag was used by General Hood of the Texas Brigade. Seven Pines and Gaines Farm were part of the Seven Days Battles where Hood’s men fought in Northern Virginia. Later on two more battles were added onto the flag, Eltham’s Landing and Malvern Hill.

Flag of General William J. Hardee

Flag of General Hardee.

This was the flag of General Hardee during his time with the Confederacy. Hardee had served in US Army during the Second Seminole War and the Mexican-American War. He commanded the First Corps of the Army of Tennessee and served in Western Theater and Carolinas Campaign.

Flag of General Leonidas Polk

Flag of General Polk.

This was the battle flag of North Carolinian Confederate General Leonidas Polk. Polk was the Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana, the founder of the Protestant Church of the Confederate States of America, and the Second Cousin of American President James K. Polk. This flag pattern is used in other flags and is known as the Polk Flag Pattern. The 11 stars are for the 11 states of the Confederacy. Polk would later be killed in action on June 14, 1864.

Flag of General Nathan Bedford Forrest

Flag of General Forrest.

This flag was flown by Forrest’s Calvary Corps during the Civil War. You may notice that there’s a star missing in the center of the flag and it’s still debated which state wasn’t included today.

Flag of General Earl Van Dorn

Flag of General Van Dorn.

Earl Van Dorn was a Confederate general from Mississippi and commanded the Trans-Mississippi District. He fought with distinction in the Mexican War and served in Arkansas and Tennessee during the Civil War. He lost to smaller Union forces on numerous occasions and was about to overcome his setbacks when he was killed by a doctor in May 1863 who claimed that Van Dorn had participated in an affair with his wife. The 13 stars on the flag stand for the 13 Southern states and the crescent moon is a symbol for liberty.

Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia

Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia.

The battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia was used by the Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, J. E. Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard, J. E. B. Stuart, and Stonewall Jackson. Yellow, orange, and white bunting was also used during the years of the war.

Flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi

Flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi.

This flag served as the flag of the Army of Trans-Mississippi during the Civil War. The flag has the opposite colors of the normal Battle Flag having a red cross and a blue background. The Trans-Mississippi Theater of the Civil War consisted of three Confederate states Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas.

Flag of the Army of Kentucky

Flag of the Army of Kentucky.

The Army of Kentucky was one of the Confederate armies during the Confederate Heartland Offensive in which the Confederates tried to liberate Kentucky from Union occupation. After the offensive failed, the army was incorporated into the Army of Tennessee.

Flag of the Army of New Mexico

Flag of the Army of New Mexico.

The Army of New Mexico, also known as the Sibley Brigade because of the commanding general, Henry Hopkins Sibley, was a Confederate army that participated in the New Mexico Campaign in which the Confederates attempted to take the northern part of the New Mexico Territory. The flag is a red variant of the Bonnie Blue Flag.

Flag of the Army of Tennessee

Flag of the Army of Tennessee.

This flag is similar to the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia, but instead of being square it’s rectangular. This army was the largest Confederate army in the Western Theater of the war and was commanded by Braxton Bragg, William Hardee, John Bell Hood, and Leonidas Polk.

First Naval Jack

First Naval Jack.

A naval jack is a flag that flies at the bow or front of a ship but only when the ship is in port, leaving, or entering. After the ship set sail the flag was removed so the crew could see better. This was the jack from 1861 to 1863. The seven stars would later be updated to 11 in late 1861.

Second Naval Jack

Second Naval Jack.

The second naval jack of the Confederate States was flown from 1863 to 1865 and is the exact same as the flag of the Army of Tennessee, a rectangular Battle Flag.

First Ensign

First Ensign.

Ensigns are flags flown at the stern of a ship and are used to identify a ship nationally. This was the first ensign of Southern ships and is the same as the 1st National Flag being flown from 1861 to 1863.

Second Ensign

Second Ensign.

This flag served as the second ensign of the Confederacy from 1863 to 1865 and is the same as the 2nd National Flag.

Largest Empires in History

  • British Empire
  • Mongol Empire
  • Russian Empire
  • Spanish Empire

British Empire (peak 1920) 

In 1497, King Henry VIII sent John Cabot on an expedition to North America. Cabot landed in Newfoundland modern day Canada. In 1583, Humphrey Gilbert set up a colony in Newfoundland. Gilbert died on the journey back to England. In 1584, sir Walter Raeligh founded the Roanoke colony in North Carolina, but the colony failed due to lack of supplies. In 1607, the Jamestown colony was set up in Virginia. In 1620, the Plymouth bay colony was established in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Plymouth, Massachusetts

In the 1620s colonies St. Kitts and Nevis and in Barbados were set up. A colony in Bermuda was also set up. In the Americas, many states were set up for different types of Christain. For example Maryland was for Catholics and Connecticut was for Congregationalists. In west Africa multiple colonies were also set up. In the 1710s the British gained colonies in Canada from the French and in Newfoundland. In the recent war Britain had defeated Spain and conquered Gibraltar and parts of the Balearic islands. In 1739 the War of Jenkin’s Ear began against the Spanish. The war had started because Captain Robert Jenkin, a British sailor had his ear cut off by Spanish Pirates.

British and Spanish ships fighting in the War of Jenkin’s Ear

During the middle of the 1700s the British East India Company had been gaining ever more control over the Mughal Empire in India. In 1770 British sailor James Cook had found many islands in the Pacific Ocean. The main islands were Australia and New Zealand, but there were also other ones like the Cook Islands.  In 1756 the Seven Years’ War had started as a result of British and French strife. It was a global conflict but most of the fighting was in North America. In 1760s Britain had been economically weakened by the Seven
Years’ War, so they made new taxes on the Thirteen Colonies to pay for it. In 1776 the American Revolution began.  Lasting until 1783, the Americans won.

The Battle of Guilford Courthouse in the American Revolution

In the early 1800s tensions rose once again between the British and the Americans. The British had been sailing their navy over to America and forcing men at gunpoint to join the navy. So in 1812 the War of 1812 started. It went on until 1814. After the defeat of Napoleon Britain started to rapidly expand. In 1811 they colonized Java, in 1819 they colonized Singapore, in 1824 they colonized Malacca, and in 1826 they colonized Burma. During the First Opium War the British captured Hong Kong from the Qing Dynasty. During most of the 19th century Britain and other European countries all rushed to colonize Africa. It is commonly known as the “Scramble for Africa.” In 1875 Britain gained full control of Egypt and held it for most of the 20th century.

Map of colonial Africa. (Light Red British)

In 1914, World War 1 started. Britain didn’t join until the Germans had started their invasion of Holland. During the war Britain lost hundreds of thousands of men, but they had gained lots of territory, mostly from Germany’s colonies in Africa. They gained lots of land in the Middle east from the Ottomans. Britain also gained land in the Pacific. In 1921 Britain had reached its territorial peak. The countries it had was: Canada, Bahamas, Many Caribbean islands, Belize, Jamaica, Guyana, Falklands, South Georgia, Egypt, Sudan, Somililand, Uganda, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Tanzania, Malawi, Tangakiya Territory, Rhodesia, South Africa, Namibia, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Singapore, parts of Thailand, parts of Malaysia, Brunei, parts of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and lots of Pacific islands.

Map of British Empire near its peak

Mongol Empire (peak 1259) 

The Mongol Empire was one of the largest empires in history. It came from Mongolia and East Asia. When Genghis Khan became emperor in 1206 he decided to start conquering every country around him. One of the first countries he attacked was the Jin Dynasty (modern day China). He took some of the far northern parts of China. Then he fixed his attention to the west. He took all Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and others. He also conquered most of Siberia and even reached Ukraine.

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan died in 1227. His successor was Ogedei. He won a great victory against a Chinese warlord and took Manchuria. He defeated the Bulgars (Turkic/Bulgarian tribe) also. In 1230 he led a campaign against the Jin Dynasty. In 1234 Ogedei defeated the Jin Dynasty. In Southern Persia some of the tribes there joined the Mongols willingly. Ogedei tried to invade Korea but had little success. They also started an offensive against the Song Dynasty of China. The Song Dynasty actually helped them fight the Jin Dynasty. Batu Khan was the new leader of the Mongol Empire. Batu destroyed the Principality of Vladimir at the Battle of Sit River.

Mongols burning Suzdal

The Mongols started their invasion of Poland and Hungary, and after this a couple of the countries in Europe formed an anti-Mongol alliance. In 1241 Ogedei died causing the Mongols to retreat from Central Europe. Although Ogedei was not the leader of the Golden horde, they still had to have a ceremony for his death. In 1246 Batu’s brother, Guyuk succeeded  the throne. In 1248, Guyuk died, and Mongke Khan was elected. In 1258 Monge invaded parts of the Middle east and Southern China. In 1258 he sacked Baghdad the capital of the Islamic Empire. He took Syria also. He attacked lots of Christain regions in the middle east and sacked all of the cities that wouldn’t surrender. A different “General” at that time was attacking the Baltic States and Ukraine. In August of 1259 Mongke died of a disease. This was the peak of the Mongol Empire and after Mongke’s death civil war began in Mongolia. In 1259 the Mongol Empire had reached its territorial peak. The countries it had was: Mongolia, most of Russia, most of China, Korea, parts of Vietnam, parts of Laos, parts of Burma, Bhutan, parts of India, Nepal, Iran, parts of Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, parts of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, parts of Jordan, Syria, parts of Turkey, parts of Ukraine, parts of Romania, Hungary, parts of Bulgaria, and parts of Poland. 

Map of the Mongol Empire around its peak

Russian Empire (peak 1810) 

The Russian Empire started under Peter the Great (1672-1725). Before Peter it was known as the Tsardom of Russia and earlier known as the Kievan Rus. He renamed it to the Russian Empire. He built a new city to be the capital of Russia. That city was Saint Petersburg. During his reign, Peter made the Russian Empire into an Autocracy. After Peter died in 1725, his wife Catherine I became tsarina for a short time. After her, Anna Ionavonna became tsarina for a short time also.

St. Petersburg in 1861

Peter III eventually came to the throne but was couped by his wife, Catherine the Great. She expanded the borders to the Baltic States. She reformed the death sentence too. The old punishment was drawing and quartering but she made a less harsh punishment. Catherine waged war against the Ottomans and conquered the southern lands on the Black Sea. Catherine also took some more Polish land too. In 1796, when Persia attacked Georgia she declared war on them. She was victorious and all of Persia and the Caucasus were under Russian rule. Catherine died in 1796, but had established Russia as a world power. Her successor, Alexander I, started more wars. At this time Sweden had modern day Finland and Sweden. Alexander attacked the Swedes and conquered Finland. He also annexed Bessarabia from Moldova. After all these wars, Russia was in grave debt. In 1812 Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of France, had launched an invasion of Russia. Napoleon was defeated, and he retreated. After he won the war, tsar Alexander I took control of Poland. After the death of Alexander, Nicholas I became tsar. In December of 1825, there was a revolt in which the people tried to make Nicholas’s brother tsar. The revolt was repressed. In 1854-1855 the Crimean war started against Turkey and Britain.

Bunker in the Crimean War

The Russians were severely defeated in this war. In 1855 when Alexander II came to the throne, he abolished serfdom. From 1858-1860 Russia gained lands from the Qing Dynasty. They had gained Outer Manchuria. In 1877 another war against the Turks began. The Russians were very successful and had taken most of their land when they surrendered. They gained lots of territory in modern day Georgia and Azerbaijan. In 1881, Alexander III came to the throne. He was a very Autocratic tsar. This is the peak of the Russian Empire. Russia at this point, although it had lots of land, was very weak and unstable. The countries it had was: Russia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, most of Poland, parts of hungary, Ukraine, parts of Romania, Georgia, parts of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, most of Iran, parts of Afghanistan, parts of Mongolia, and parts of China.

Russian Empire around its peak

Spanish Empire (peak 1810)

In 1492, Spain had reconquered all of Iberia from the Islamics. After they had conquered Iberia, they decided to take North Africa. In 1497 they took Melilla, in 1505 they took Mazalquivir, In 1508 they took Penon de Velez de la Gomera, In 1509 they took Oran, In 1510 they took Algiers, In 1510 they also took Bougie, and Tripoli, and in 1476 they took Santa cruz de la mar Pequena. In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed west, trying to reach Japan. Instead of finding Japan, he found America.

Christopher Columbus finds the new world

In 1502, the first settlement was made in the new world. It was in modern day Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. A colony in Cumana, Venezuela was also set up in 1510. The Spaniards conquered the Aztec and Incan Empires in Central America. Lots of more colonies were set up in Hispaniola (modern day Cuba and Puerto Rico). In 1496, Santo Domingo was colonized by Columbus’s brother. In 1498 the Spanish started to reach the mainland. By 1508, Spain had conquered the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. In 1510 they expanded greatly, taking Nicauragua, Panama, and Costa Rica. In the 1520s, Mexico was colonized.

The Battle of Tenochtitlan

In 1545, Potosi was discovered. A settlement was made there and massive amounts of silver were found. In 1572, the last ruler of the Incan empire was executed. From 1560-1580 Spanish pirates and English pirates engaged in a series of battles trying to steal from each other. The spanish defeated a fleet of British at the Battle of San Juan de la Ulua in Mexico. By the late 1500s most of Central and South America had been conquered. In 1564, the Spanish decided to take a country in Asia. The Philippines were conquered by the Spanish in that year. Luis de Velasco, had also found the “Spice Islands” which is a  modern day Archipelago of islands in Indonesia. In 1571, the Spanish attacked Brunei, which at that point had almost all of the island of Borneo. Brunei was conquered and it was made the capital of the Spanish East Indies.

Spanish colonization of the Philippines

In 1578, another war broke out between the Spanish and the Muslims from Brunei. In April of 1578 the Spanish captured the capital of Kota Batu. In 1598, Philip III came to the throne. Between 1600-1623 the plague hit Europe, and about 20% of the Castilliean  population in Spain died. During the reign of Philip IV (1621-1665) Spain was in economic decline. In 1776, during the American Revolution, Spain helped the colonies mostly because of their hatred with the British. In 1810, Spain had a vast quantity of land in the New world. The countries it had were: Spain, parts of Italy, Philippines, parts of Indonesia, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Equator, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Mexico, Guatemala, about half of the United States, and parts of Canada.

Map of Spanish Empire around its peak