American States and Canadian Provinces Part 3

Alberta (Canada) 

Alberta flag

Capital: Edmonton 

Largest city: Calgary 

Population: 4 Million 

Size: 255,541 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: September 1, 1905 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Mount Columbia 12,293 feet tall 

Edmonton city hall in Edmonton, Alberta

British Columbia (Canada) 

British Columbia flag

Capital: Victoria 

Largest city: Vancouver 

Population: 4.6 Million 

Size: 364,764 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 20, 1871 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Mount Waddington 13,186 feet tall 

Hunlen Falls in Tweedsmuir Park, British Columbia

Manitoba (Canada) 

Manitoba flag

Capital: Winnipeg (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Brandon 

Population: 1.2 Million 

Size: 250,950 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 15, 1870 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Baldy Mountain 2,730 feet tall 

Ancient Inukshuk stone landmark erected by the Inuit people in Churchill, Manitoba

New Brunswick (Canada) 

New Brunswick flag

Capital: Fredericton 

Largest city: Moncton 

Population: 782,078 

Size: 28,150 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 1, 1867 

Main languages: English and French 

Tallest point: Mount Carleton 2,680 feet tall 

Cape Enrage Lighthouse in Albert County, New Brunswick

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada) 

Newfoundland and Labrador flag

Capital: St. John’s (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Conception Bay South 

Population: 519,716 

Size: 156,650 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: March 31, 1949 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Mount Caubvick (Mont D’Iberville) 5,420 feet tall 

Signal Hill in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador

Northwest Territories (Canada) 

Northwest Territories flag

Capital: Yellowknife (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Hay River 

Population: 41,786 

Size: 519,734 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 15, 1870 

Main languages: English, French, Chipewyan, Cree, and Gwich’in 

Tallest point: Keele Peak 9,751 feet tall 

Tukoyaktuk, Northwest Territories

Nova Scotia (Canada) 

Nova Scotia flag

Capital: Halifax (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Cape Breton 

Population: 923,598 

Size: 21,345 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 1, 1867 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: White Hill 1,755 feet tall 

Old Town Clock in Halifax, Nova Scotia

Nunavut (Canada) 

Nunavut flag

Capital: Iqaluit (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Rankin Inlet 

Population: 39,407 

Size: 787,155 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: April 1, 1999 

Main languages: Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, English, and French 

Tallest point: Barbeau Peak 8,583 feet tall 

St. Jude’s Cathedral in Iqaluit, Nunavut

Ontario (Canada) 

Ontario flag

Capital: Toronto (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Ottawa 

Population: 13.4 Million 

Size: 415,598 sq. miles

Date joined confederation: July 1, 1867 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Ishpatina Ridge 2,274 feet tall 

Skyline of Toronto, Ontario with CN Tower

Prince Edward Island (Canada) 

Prince Edward Island flag

Capital: Charlottetown (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Summerside 

Population: 142,907 

Size: 2,190 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 1, 1873 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Unnamed location 466 feet tall 

Woods Island lighthouse in Wood Island, Prince Edward Island

Quebec (Canada) 

Quebec flag

Capital: Quebec City 

Largest city: Montreal 

Population: 8.1 Million 

Size: 595,391 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: July 1, 1867 

Main languages: French 

Tallest point: Mont D’Iberville (Mount Caubvick) 5,420 feet tall 

Le Chateau Frontenac in Quebec City, Quebec

Saskatchewan (Canada) 

Saskatchewan flag

Capital: Regina 

Largest city: Saskatoon 

Population: 1 Million 

Size: 251,700 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: September 1, 1905 

Main languages: English 

Tallest point: Unnamed Location 4,567 feet tall 

Sunflower field, Saskatchewan

Yukon (Canada) 

Yukon flag

Capital: Whitehorse (and largest city) 

2nd largest city: Dawson 

Population: 35,874 

Size: 186,272 sq. miles 

Date joined confederation: June 13, 1898 

Main languages: English and French 

Tallest point: Mount Logan 19,551 feet tall 

Lake Laberge, Yukon

Modern Countries Part 7

Portugal (Europe)

Portugal flag

Capital: Lisbon

Population: 10.2 Million

Size: 35,603 sq. miles

Currency: Euro

Tallest point: Serra de Estrela 6,539 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 84.3%

Main languages: Portugese and Mirandese

About: On December 1, 1640, John IV of Portugal declared his country’s independence from Spain.

Belem Tower in Lisbon, Portugal

Qatar (Asia)

Qatar flag

Capital: Doha

Population: 2.7 Million

Size: 4,471 sq. miles

Currency: Qatari riyal

Tallest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 338 feet tall

Main religion: Islam 67.7%

Main languages: Arabic and English

About: On September 1, 1971, Qatar declared its independence from the British Empire. 

Dallah Qatar monument in Doha, Qatar

Romania (Europe)

Romanian flag

Capital: Bucharest

Population: 19.3 Million

Size: 92,046 sq. miles

Currency: Romanian Leu

Tallest point: Moldoveanu Peak 8,346 feet tall

Main religion: Christain 92.3% 

Main languages: Romanian, Albanian, Amerian, Bulgarian, and Croatian 

About: In 1989, after the Berlin Wall fell, Romania became independent from the Soviet Union. 

Peles castle in Sinaia, Romania

Russia (Europe)

Russian flag

Capital: Moscow

Population: 146.7 Million 

Size: 6,612,073 sq. miles

Currency: Russian Ruble

Tallest point: Mount Elbrus 15,554 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 73% 

Main languages: Russian, English, German, French, and Turkish

About: In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved and the Russian Federation was formed. 

Red Square in Moscow, Russia

Rwanda (Africa)

Rwanda flag

Capital: Kigali

Population: 12.3 Million

Size: 10,169 sq. miles

Currency: Rwandan Franc

Tallest point: Mount Karisimbi 14,787 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 93.2% 

Main languages: English, French, Kinyarwanda, and Swahili 

About: On July 1, 1962, Rwanda became independent from Belgium. It was formerly part of the Belgian Congo. 

Mount Kibuye, Rwanda

Saint Kitts and Nevis (North America)

Saint Kitts and Nevis flag

Capital: Basseterre 

Population: 52,441 

Size: 101 sq. miles

Currency: East Carribean Dollar 

Tallest point: Mount Liamuiga 3,792 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 94.6% 

Main languages: English

About: On September 19, 1983, Saint Kitts and Nevis became independent from Great Britain. 

Brimstone Hill Fortress in Middle Island Parish, Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Lucia (North America)

Saint Lucia flag

Capital: Castries

Population: 184,751 

Size: 238 sq. miles

Currency: East Carribean Dollar 

Tallest point: Mount Gimie 3,145 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 90.4% 

Main languages: English and Saint Lucian Creole French

About: Saint Lucia gained full independence from Britain on February 22, 1979. 

The Pittons, Saint Lucia

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (North America)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines flag

Capital: Kingstown 

Population: 110,211 people 

Size: 150 sq. miles

Currency: East Carribean Dollar

Tallest point: La Soufriere 4,049 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 82.1%

Main languages: English and Vincentian Creole 

About: On October 27, 1979, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became independent from Great Britain. 

Fort Charlotte in Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Samoa (Australia and the Pacific)

Samoa flag

Capital: Apia 

Population: 202,506 

Size: 1,079 sq. miles

Currency: Tala 

Tallest point: Mount Silisili 6,069 feet tall 

Main religion: Christianity 100% 

Main languages: Samoan and English 

About: On June 1, 1962, Samoa became independent from New Zealand. 

Sopoaga Falls on Savai’i, Island, Samoa

San Marino (Europe)

San Marino flag

Capital: San Marino 

Population: 34,232 

Size: 23 sq. miles

Currency: Euro

Tallest point: Monte Titano 2,425 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 97%

Main languages: Italian and Emilian-Romagnol 

About: San Marino became an independent city-state in 301 AD. Since then it’s been independent. 

Landscape of San Marino

Sao Tome and Principe (Africa)

Sao Tome and Principe flag

Capital: Sao Tome

Population: 211,028 

Size: 386 sq. miles

Currency: Dobra 

Tallest point: Pico de Sao Tome 6,640 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 82.2% 

Main languages: Portuguese, Forro, Angolar, and Principense 

About: On July 12, 1975, Sao Tome and Principe became independent from Portugal. 

Pico de Sao Tome

Saudi Arabia (Asia)

Saudi Arabia flag

Capital: Riyadh 

Population: 34.2 Million 

Size: 830,000 sq. miles

Currency: Saudi Riyal 

Tallest point: Jabal Sawda 10,279 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 100% 

Main languages: Arabic 

About: After WW1 and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, Saudi Arabia was formed in 1932. 

The Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Senegal (Africa)

Senegal flag

Capital: Dakar 

Population: 15.8 Million 

Size: 75,951 sq. miles

Currency: WAF Franc (Western African Franc) 

Tallest point: Unnamed Location 2,126 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 95% 

Main languages: French and Wolof 

About: On April 4, 1960, Senegal became independent from France. Four months later on August 20, 1960, Senegal withdrew from the Mali Federation, and became completely independent. 

Gorre Island, Senegal

Serbia (Europe)

Serbian flag

Capital: Belgrade 

Population: 6.9 Million 

Size: 29,913 sq. miles 

Currency: Serbian Dinar

Tallest point: Midzor 8,720 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 90.6% 

Main languages: Serbian, Hungarian, Bosnian, Albanian, and Croatian 

About: In 1989, when the Berlin Wall fell, Serbia became independent. It gained full independence after the Yugoslav wars in 2006. 

Saint Sava Cathedral in Belgrade, Serbia

Seychelles (Africa)

Seychelles flag

Capital: Victoria 

Population: 98,462 

Size: 177 sq. mile 

Currency: Seychellois Rupee 

Tallest point: Morne Seychelles 2,969 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 89.2% 

Main languages: English, French, and Seychellois Creole

About: On June 29, 1976, Seychelles became independent from Great Britain. 

Unity monument in Victoria, Seychelles

Sierra Leone (Africa)

Sierra Leone flag

Capital: Freetown 

Population: 8 Million 

Size: 27,700 sq. miles 

Currency: Leone 

Tallest point: Mount Bintumani 6,381 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 78% 

Main languages: English and Krio 

About: On April 19, 1961, Sierra Leone became independent from Great Britain. 

Freetown, Sierra Leone

Singapore (Asia)

Singapore flag

Capital: Singapore 

Population: 5.7 Million 

Size: 281.2 sq. miles

Currency: Singapore Dollar

Tallest point: Bukit Timah Hill 537 feet tall 

Main religion: Buddhism 33.2%  

Main languages: Malay, English, Mandarin, and Tamil 

About: On June 3, 1959, Singapore became independent from Great Britain but was still part of Malaysia. On August 9, 1965, Singapore became independent from Malaysia. 

Gardens by the bay, Singapore

Slovakia (Europe)

Slovakian flag

Capital: Bratislava 

Population: 5.4 Million 

Size: 18,933 sq. miles 

Currency: Euro 

Tallest point: Gerlachovsky stit 8,711 feet tall 

 Main religion: Christain 85.9% 

Main languages: Slovak 

About: When the Berlin wall fell and the dissolution of the Soviet Union was happening, Slovakia became independent on January 1, 1993. It was formerly known as Czechaslovakia. 

Bojnice castle in Bojnice, Slovakia

Slovenia (Europe)

Slovenia flag

Capital: Ljubljana 

Population: 2.1 Million 

Size: 7,827 sq. miles 

Currency: Euro 

Tallest point: Triglav 9,395 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 77.8% 

Main languages: Slovene, Italian, and Hungarian 

About: On June 25, 1991, Slovenia became separate from the rest of Yugoslavia. 

Bled Island tower in Bled, Slovenia

Solomon Islands (Australia and the Pacific)

Solomon Islands flag

Capital: Honiara 

Population: 652,857 

Size: 11,000 sq. miles

Currency: Solomon Islands Dollar 

Tallest point: Mount Popomanaseu 7,661 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 97.4% 

Main languages: English 

About: On July 7, 1978, the Solomon Islands became independent from Great Britain. 

King Solomon Hotel in Honiara, Solomon Islands

Somalia (Africa)

Somalia flag

Capital: Mogadishu 

Population: 15.8 Million 

Size: 246,201 sq. miles

Currency: Somali Shilling 

Tallest point: Mount Shimbiris 8,071 feet tall 

Main religion: Islam 100% 

Main languages: Somali, Arabic, English, and Italian 

About: During WW2 Italy invaded Ethiopia and Somalia and conquered it. After the war Great Britain kept Somalia as its own until its independence on July 1, 1960. 

Hadful mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia

South Africa (Africa)

South Africa flag

Capital: Pretoria, Capetown, and Bloemfontein 

Population: 59.6 Million 

Size: 471,445 sq. miles

Currency: South African Rand 

Tallest point: Mafadi 11,306 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 78% 

Main languages: English, isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans, and Sepedi 

About: In 1910, South Africa was unified into the Union of South Africa. In 1934, it gained independence from Great Britain, but the British monarch was still the head of the state. On May 31, 1961, it gained full independence from Britain. 

Capetown, South Africa

South Sudan (Africa)

South Sudan flag

Capital: Juba 

Population: 12.7 Million 

Size: 239,285 sq. miles 

Currency: South Sudanese Pound 

Tallest point: Kinyeti 10,456 feet tall 

Main religion: Christain 60.5% 

Main languages: English, Arabic, Otuho, Acholi, and Dinka 

About: On July 9, 2011, after a civil war, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan. 

All Saints Cathedral in Juba, South Sudan

History of the American Revolution Part 1: 1775-1776

Important or major battles from 1775-1776

Political Situation 

In 1651, the first trade regulation was imposed on the thirteen colonies and later more and more were imposed. In 1765, the stamp act was placed and which was where every paper document, no matter what it was, had to get a stamp. This stamp notified that you would have to pay an extra amount of money.

Join or die flag, made by Benjamin Franklin

The colonies had no seats in the British parliament and didn’t have any representation to whether or not the taxes and regulations were passed. Lots of people got mad about this. The reason they were mad was not because they had to pay money, it was because they had no representation in the parliament. Many militia groups were formed such as the sons of liberty to protest and boycott the taxes. After these taxes many more were to come. In February 1775, Massachusetts Bay Colony was declared a state of rebellion and was put under military occupation. After this the battles of Lexington and Concord were the first two battles in the war. 

Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

The Patriots knew that Fort Ticonderoga had lots of guns and ammunition and they knew that their armies didn’t have lots of guns and ammunition. So they decided to take it. General Benedict Arnold set out to take the fort but he ran into Ethan Allen and his militia known as the Green Mountain Boys.

Flag of the Green Mountain Boys

They had an argument over who would be in charge, but eventually Ethan Allen threatened to go home so Arnold gave in. On May 9, 1775, they were ready to cross the Ticonderoga river. They were approaching the fort when one of the soldier’s muskets misfierd so they rushed into the fort but all of the British were sleeping and they had to surrender. There was only one casualty. A patriot was slightly wounded by one of the sentrys who was guarding the fort.

Fort Ticonderoga present day

All of the British troops were captured inside the fort and it was a victory much needed by the Patriots. After the battle Fort Crown Point and Fort Saint-Jean were also captured. All the guns and ammunition that was inside the fort was eventually transported to Washington’s army in Boston. 

Battle of Bunker Hill 

At 3 p.m. on June 17, 1775, the British under Brigadier General Pigot marched into the city of Charlestown, Massachusetts. They intended to march up nearby Breed’s Hill and take it. They were taking bullets from patriot snipers on the hill. British Admiral Graves fired incendiary shells on the Patriot snipers on the hill, knocking them out. The British also called for a force to set fire to the town of Charlestown which they did. General Howe sent light infantry and grenadiers up the hill. General Pigot marched up the hill with the 5th, 38th, 43rd, and 52nd infantry also.

British marching up the hill

The American positions were soon reinforced with artillery. As they advanced up Breed’s Hill, there was long grass, zigzagging fences and uneven terrain. This made it hard for them to effectively get up the hill. Once they got farther up the patriots unleashed volleys of musket fire, inflicting heavy casualties on the British. The field commander of the grenadiers James Abercrombie was killed in action.

Death of Lt. Col. James Abercrombie

When they got close enough they could shoot back but were in even more exposed positions and suffered heavy casualties again. After this Pigot ordered a retreat. Most of the grenadiers were either killed or wounded, some companies only had three or four soldiers left. On the second charge they were also beat back, similarly to the first. On the third attack, most of the patriots had run out of ammunition so they had to retreat. Although they won the battle, the British suffered 1,054 casualties whereas the patriots only suffered 450. 62 British officers were wounded and 19 were killed during the battle. The Battle of Bunker Hill was the worst battle in the American Revolution. 

Battle of Quebec

After the capture of Fort Ticonderoga the Patriots led small attacks in Quebec. On June 27, 1775 authorization  was made for the invasion of Canada. In September of 1775 the patriot army began their advance into Quebec province of Canada. In Quebec a large part of the French Canadian population rose in revolt against the British. General Guy Carleton was the commander of the forces defending the city of Quebec and was also the Governor of the province of Quebec.

General Guy Carleton

On September 25, there was a failed attempt made by Ethan Allen to ambush the British in Montreal. The Americans tried to recruit some French Canadians in revolution but this proved to be unsuccessful. On November 3 Benedict Arnold’s men had reached the city. On December 1 general Montgomery of the Americans arrived and finally on December 30, the day of the attack began. The British strength was around 1,800 men whereas the patriot strength was around 1,200. On December 30 a blizzard came to Quebec, and Montgomery led his men through the snow to the outer defenses. Montgomery and his men rushed down the street and he was instantly killed by a volley fire. He was struck in the head and fell to the ground. His men fled back after his death.

Fighting in the streets of Quebec

Benedict Arnold led his men and once again went down a narrow street. Arnold was shot in the leg but was still able to lead the attack. Meanwhile American General  Morgan and his men were able to place ladders onto the walls when bullets were raining down on them. They had got into the center of the city when they were encircled by British reinforcements. The only thing Morgan could was surrender but he refused to surrender to a British general so instead he gave his sword to a Catholic priest.

Battle of Long Island     

In the first stage of the war the British had been trapped in Boston but eventually retreated to Halifax, Nova Scotia. On June 28, 1775 General George Washington got word that the British had set sail from Halifax to New York.  The British ships landed in New York Bay. The populace of New York was enraged and took down a statue of King George III and melted it into musket balls. On August 22, British troops landed on Long Island, but no fighting ensued. On August 24 some fighting between the Americans and the British happened but not much. That day the Hessian mercenaries that the British had hired started to bombard the American lines.

American troops engage with British at Long Island

As the fighting continued for hours as the Americans were weakened. Most of the Americans were killed or wounded but the remaining ones retreated back to Brooklyn Heights. In the battle 300 Americans were killed, 800 were wounded, and 1,079 were captured.  64 British were killed, 293 were wounded, and 31 went missing. Washington’s army was now completely surrounded in front of them, to the left, and to the right were the British, and behind them was the East River. Instead of attacking the British laid in for siege and they dug trenches.

American troops evacuating Long Island

On August 30 all of Washington’s troops had evacuated by a ferry and the army was saved from destruction. 

Battle of Harlem Heights 

After the American defeat at Long Island, George Washington evacuated his men to the shores of Manhattan Island. On September 16, 1776, the British advanced toward the American lines. Lt. Col. Thomas Knowlton and his men were spotted by the British and General Alexander Leslie of the British decided to attack. A mild skirmish ensued, Knowlton had to retreat and the British pursued him. Members of Washington and Knowlton’s army stopped retreating and engaged the British. The Americans started to push the British back on were advancing but Knwolton was killed in the fighting. The British flank was in danger so they fell back to occupy a fence line. The British once again fell back from the fence line and ran across an open field but then were reinforced with heavy artillery.

Battle of Harlem Heights

Washington decided to pursue the British. Fighting started in the Buckwheat field between Washington and the British. The Americans still outnumbered the British but by not much. For 2 more hours the battle raged on. The British artillery started to run out of ammo, so they retreated. This was the victory that the Americans needed. 30 Americans were killed and 100 were wounded whereas 14 British were killed and 157 were wounded. 

Battle of Trenton

On December 22, 1776, Washington got word that the Hessian guard was down so he decided to do a surprise attack. It started to rain, then it started to sleet, and then it started to snow. The continental army made preparations to cross the Delaware river on Durham boats. Fortunately, no one died during the crossing and even the artillery made it over safely.

Washington crossing the Delaware River

One group of men were sent north of Trenton, New Jersey and the other went south. In the early hours of December 26, the army started to march to Trenton. The Americans also had to cross Jacob’s creek on their way to the city. Two men died of exposure during the march to Trenton. At 8 in the morning they reached the enemy that were all Hessian mercenaries. Fighting broke out between the Americans and the unready Hessians. Both of the Hessian detachments ordered retreats farther back. Then north of the city the other American groups also engaged more Hessians there. They pushed them back into the city and they also cut off any route of escape. The Americans pushed into downtown and took over important streets. The US artillery also started to fire on the fleeing Hessians. The Hessians tried to advance but were again pushed back. The Hessian defenses broke, and they scattered running in any direction.

Battle of Trenton

The enemy was trapped and they ordered terms of surrender. In the battle, 2 Americans were killed from exposure, and 5 were wounded. 22 Hessians were killed, 83 were wounded, and 900 were captured. This was a small battle yet it was one of the most important battles in the war.